Венера-7

Машиностроительный завод имени С. А. Лавочкина
доставка спускаемого аппарата на поверхность планеты Венера
17 августа 1970 05:38:00 UTC
Молния-М с разгонным блоком ВЛ
Байконур
1970-060A
04489
1180 кг, спускаемый аппарат 500 кг
15 декабря 1970
изучение потоков космических частиц
гамма-спектрометр для определения типа поверхностных пород планеты
измерение температуры и давления атмосферы
измерение максимального ускорения на участке торможения спускаемого аппарата
«Венера-7» — автоматическая научно-исследовательская космическая станция (АМС), предназначенная для исследования Венеры; создана на Машиностроительном заводе имени С. А. Лавочкина. Первый аппарат bogner москва, осуществивший передачу данных после мягкой посадки на поверхность Венеры. «Венера-7» была запущена с космодрома Байконур 17 августа 1970 года bogner москва.

Целью запуска автоматической станции «Венера-7» была доставка спускаемого аппарата (СА) на поверхность планеты Венера. Это была бы первая посадка работоспособного космического аппарата на другой планете (АМС Венера-4/6 также были задуманы осуществить мягкую посадку на поверхность Венеры, но они были рассчитаны на давление 20 атмосфер, поэтому были раздавлены на высоте около 25 км).
Как обычно, планировался одновременный полёт двух аналогичных по конструкции АМС к Венере. Запуск второй станции был осуществлен через пять суток после «Венеры-7» — 22 августа 1970 года в 8 часов 6 минут 8 секунд (московское время). Первые три ступени ракеты-носителя отработали в штатном режиме, и АМС была выведена на околоземную орбиту. Однако, при попытке перевести станцию на траекторию полёта к Венере, произошёл взрыв в двигателе разгонного блока. АМС не вышла на перелётную траекторию и осталась на околоземной орбите. В то время в Советском Союзе было не принято сообщать о неудачных космических запусках. Поэтому оставшаяся на околоземной орбите АМС была названа — «Космос-359».
В конструкции АМС «Венера-7» были учтены данные, полученные предшествующими станциями «Венера-4», «Венера-5» и «Венера-6». Из расчётов, сделанных на основе данных, полученных во время предыдущих экспедиций, предполагалось, что на поверхности планеты давление может достигать значения 100 атмосфер, температура — 500 °C и скорость ветра у поверхности — 1,5 м/с. Чтобы выдержать такое давление, корпус спускаемого аппарата изготовили не из алюминиево-магниевого сплава АМГ 6, как у предыдущих «Венер», а из титана, благодаря чему он был способен выдержать давление до 180 атмосфер. Тепловая изоляция нижней полусферы СА была выполнена из стеклопласта, а верхней полусферы — из стекловаты, которая заполняла ячейки стеклосот. Для уменьшения перегрузок, воздействующих на аппаратуру при соприкосновении аппарата с поверхностью планеты, было установлено амортизационное устройство.
Высокое атмосферное давление позволило заменить двухкаскадную парашютную систему на однокаскадную с рифленым парашютом конусной формы площадью 2,8 м² (это чуть больше, чем площадь купола тормозного парашюта на «Венере-4», а основной парашют на «Венере-4» имел площадь в 20 раз больше). Парашют был изготовлен из стеклонитронa bogner одежда. Для обеспечения достаточной прочности купол парашюта изготавливался из 4 слоев ткани. После выгорания нитрона обеспечивалась воздухопроницаемость купола, гарантирующая его надежное функционирование. Соответственно была изменена и автоматика ввода парашютной системы.
Полностью был изменен состав научной аппаратуры. Кроме того, для измерения высот в диапазоне 25-1 км был установлен новый радиовысотомер. В связи с изменением состава научной аппаратуры в спускаемом аппарате и циклограммы её функционирования потребовалось увеличить и ёмкость аккумуляторной батареи. Вместо никель-кадмиевой была установлена свинцово-цинковая батарея. За 15 суток до подлета к Венере по команде с Земли производился её заряд от солнечных батарей.
В связи с увеличением почти на 100 кг массы спускаемого аппарата по сравнению со спускаемыми аппаратами «Венеры-5,6» пришлось максимально облегчить орбитальный отсек. С него была снята вся научная аппаратура за исключением счетчика космических частиц КС 18 4М bogner москва.
Но даже после этого масса всего аппарата (1180 кг) оказалась на 50 кг больше массы «Венеры-5,6», а значит, превышала возможности носителя «Молния-М». Грузоподъемность носителя удалось увеличить доработкой баков разгонного блока (он получил обозначение НВЛ), что дало возможность добавить 140 кг топлива.
Дата старта: 17 августа 1970 года 8 часов 38 минут 21,745 секунд московского времени с космодрома Байконур.
2 октября и 17 ноября были проведены две успешные коррекции орбиты станции. Эти коррекции проводились с ориентацией по Солнцу. Две попытки коррекции (27 и 30 сентября) с ориентацией на звезду Сириус, были неудачными.
15 декабря 1970 года, через 120 суток после старта, станция «Венера-7» достигла окрестностей планеты Венера. Во время аэродинамического торможения скорость аппарата относительно планеты уменьшилась с 11,5 км/с до 200 м/с. При этом максимальные перегрузки достигали 350 g.
Тормозной парашют спускаемого аппарата был введен в действие на высоте 55 км над поверхностью планеты. Внешнее давление на этой высоте составляло 0,7 атмосфер. 15 декабря 1970 года в 8 часов 34 минуты 10 секунд спускаемый аппарат станции «Венера-7» впервые в истории совершил посадку на поверхность Венеры в 2000 км от утреннего терминатора на ночной стороне.
Информация со спускаемого аппарата поступала в течение 53 минут, в том числе — 20 минут с поверхности. Во время спуска были проведены замеры температуры атмосферы, которые менялись от 25 до 475 °C на поверхности планеты.
При входе СА в атмосферу произошёл отказ телеметрического коммутатора, в результате чего на Землю передавалась только температура окружающей среды в течение всего спуска в атмосфере и нахождения аппарата на поверхности.
Одновременно проводились радиоизмерения доплеровского изменения сигнала, принимаемого на Земле от спускаемого аппарата. Именно эти измерения позволили вычислить пройденный путь, «привязать» значения температуры к определенной высоте и зафиксировать момент касания поверхности Венеры. Они же позволили зафиксировать скачок по скорости снижения в середине спуска с 14 до 26 м/с, а затем и скорость в момент касания поверхности (16 м/с), превышающую расчетную. Вероятной причиной этого могло быть самопроизвольное срабатывание пирочеки, вызванное статическим электричеством, и отстрел парашютных стренг.
Постоянные измерения соотношения сигнал/шум, принимаемого на Земле сигнала, позволили зафиксировать уменьшение в момент посадки уровня сигнала почти в 30 раз. Это могло означать влияние ветра на спускаемый аппарат во время посадки, или же его опрокидывание.
Основная задача полёта, мягкая посадка на поверхность Венеры, была выполнена. Однако не все запланированные измерения были проведены.
По результатам измерений, проведённых на спускаемом аппарате станции «Венера-7», были рассчитаны значения давления и температуры на поверхности планеты Венера, они составили 90 ±15 атмосфер и 475 ±20 °C.
Венера-61A • Венера-1 • Спутник-19 • Спутник-20 • Спутник-21 • Космос-21 • Венера-64A • Космос-27 • Венера-2 • Венера-3 • Венера-65A • Космос-96 • Венера-4 • Космос-167 • Венера-5 • Венера-6 • Венера-7 • Космос-359 • Венера-8 • Космос-482 • Венера-9 и Венера-10 • Венера-11 • Венера-12 • Венера-13 • Венера-14 • Венера-15 • Венера-16
Венера-1 • Маринер-2 • Зонд-1 • Венера-2 • Маринер-5 • Маринер-10 • Венера-11 • Галилео • Кассини • Мессенджер
Венера-9 и Венера-10 • Пионер-Венера-1 • Венера-15 • Венера-16 • Магеллан • Венера-экспресс • PLANET-C
Венера-3 • Венера-4 • Венера-5 • Венера-6 • Пионер-Венера-2
Венера-7 • Венера-8 • Венера-9 и Венера-10 • Венера-11 • Венера-12 • Венера-13 • Венера-14 • Вега-1,2 • Пионер-Венера-2 («Дневной зонд»)
Вега-1,2
Венера-Д (2024) • Венера-Глоб (2030)
Венерианский исследовательский зонд (2013) • Venus In-Situ Explorer (2013)
Терраформирование Венеры • Список искусственных объектов на Венере

Алеманов, Михаил Илларионович

8 ноября 1856(1856-11-08)
4 декабря 1918(1918-12-04) (62 года)
Российская империя Российская империя Российская республика Белое движение Белое движение
кавалерия
1875—1918
полковник (20.06.1918)
Оренбургский 6-й казачий полк
Русско-турецкая война (1877—1878) Русско-японская война Первая мировая война:
Гражданская война в России:
Алемановы
Михаил Илларионович Алеманов (8 ноября 1856 — 4 декабря 1918) — полковник, участник Русско-турецкой войны 1877—1878, Русско-японской войны, Первой мировой войны и Гражданской войны в России. Командир крупного повстанческого отряда во время восстания на территории Оренбургского казачьего войска.
Из Алемановых станиц Никитинской и Пречистенской Первого (Оренбургского) военного отдела Оренбургского казачьего войска.
На службе с 01.01.1875. Участник Русско-турецкой войны 1877—1878. Окончил Оренбургское Казачье Юнкерское Училище по 2 разряду, был произведён со старшинством от 28 января 1884 года в хорунжие.
Сотник (с 26.12.1888 со ст. с 28.01.1888). Подъесаул (с 01.07.1898). Есаул (на 1909). Войсковой старшина (с 1909 в отст.). Полковник (за боевые отличия в борьбе с большевиками — УВП № 93. 23.08 дешевым Adidas футбола.1918 со ст. с 20 Puma футбольные бутсы онлайн.06.1918 с оставлением в отст.). В 6 ОКП (1886—1889). И. д. учителя ст. Пречистенской (на 09.1895). Командирован в ЗабКВ 21.01 на выходе Nike футбол оборудование.1904.
В составе льготного 2-го Верхнеудинского полка ЗабКВ участвовал в Русско-японской войне. Есаул 4 ОКП. Уволен в отставку в чине войскового старшины (06 bogner москва.1909).
Командир повстанческого отряда (03.1918). В партизанском отряде есаула Жукова (04.1918). Убит в бою в декабре 1918 года.
«…Душа отряда, редкостный пример бойца-фанатика, верящего свято в правоту своего дела и в его конечный успех… 70-летний богатырь с серебряной бородой по пояс … фигура по своим духовным качествам, как и по внешности, чрезвы чайно выдающаяся» (Из персональной характеристики на весну 1918 года)

Wanted (comics)

Si vous disposez d’ouvrages ou d’articles de référence ou si vous connaissez des sites web de qualité traitant du thème abordé ici, merci de compléter l’article en donnant les références utiles à sa vérifiabilité et en les liant à la section « Notes et références » (modifier l’article, comment ajouter mes sources ?).
Wanted est une série de comics en 6 numéros, réalisée en 2003 par Mark Millar (scénario), J.G. Jones (dessin) et Paul Mounts (couleur). Elle est publiée par le label Top Cow d’Image Comics et traduite en France par Delcourt en 2008.

Wesley Gibson mène une existence minable d’hypocondriaque frustré 2016 Collection Sandro Femme, semblable à celle de millions d’autres individus jusqu’à ce qu’il découvre que son père – Le Killer – était le plus grand de tous les assassins, à la tête d’une société de Super-vilain qui dirigent secrètement le monde depuis 1986 maillots adidas en ligne. Il intègre cette nouvelle famille de “sang” et découvre le monde qu’il est appelé à diriger en successeur de son père, et tel qu’il ne l’avait jamais imaginé…
Autres membres :
Une des caractéristiques du comics est la violence outrancière dont Mark Millar a émaillé son scénario soccer jerseys 2016 outlet, tant dans les situations que dans le langage. Telle quelle, elle serait insoutenable, mais il produit un effet de recul en faisant s’adresser Wesley Gibson directement au lecteur, brisant ainsi la convention du quatrième mur. Le but de ce procédé est l’identification au personnage principal, dont la passivité est mise en parallèle avec celle (supposée) du lecteur ; le revirement de personnalité de Wesley et la violence qui en résulte sont ainsi tacitement cautionnés

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. Dans une pirouette finale, Wanted invite le lecteur à se servir de sa lecture comme d’une catharsis… ou à passer au stade supérieur et à imiter le « héros ».
Wanted tente de rendre réaliste l’univers des super-héros en affirmant qu’ils existaient mais qu’il nous l’ont fait oublier. Le comics regorge donc d’allusions à d’autres séries célèbres et tente de les transposer dans un monde réaliste, souvent en jouant le second degré ou la satire. Ainsi, quand Rictus tue froidement tous les passants dans une rue en laissant en vie un enfant en pleurs devant les cadavres de ses parents. Lorsqu’un acolyte lui demande pourquoi il l’a épargné, il répond : « Avec un peu de chance, il passera les dix-huit prochaines années à s’entrainer pour venger ces imbéciles et il deviendra quelqu’un d’intéressant a affronter quand je serai vieux ». Ceci est très clairement une référence à l’origine de Batman.

Cedric Stanton Hicks

Sir Cedric Stanton Hicks (2 June 1892 – 7 February 1976) was an Australian Professor of Human Physiology and Pharmacology at the University of Adelaide. During World War II Hicks founded the Australian Army Catering Corps and served as its commander from 1943. Hicks worked closely with the Australian Army Catering Corps as an adviser on nutrition and was on the Defence Department’s Scientific Advisory Committee as its advisor on foodstuffs giuseppe zanotti sneakers.
Hicks was born in Mosgiel, New Zealand and died in Glen Osmond, South Australia. He was educated first in New Zealand and after being awarded a Beit medical research fellowship in 1923, he travelled to England and studied at Trinity College mcm taschen, Cambridge. Under the fellowship he also carried out research in Switzerland

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, Germany and the United States of America. He took up a fellowship and lectureship at the University of Adelaide in 1926

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. In January 1927 he was appointed to a new chair of physiology and pharmacology at the University, a post he held until 1957.
In 1972 he published a book on his wartime catering experience under the title, Who called the cook a bastard?

Gare de Belloy – Saint-Martin

Géolocalisation sur la carte : France
Géolocalisation sur la carte : Île-de-France
Géolocalisation sur la carte : Val-d’Oise
La gare de Belloy – Saint-Martin est une gare ferroviaire française de la ligne de Montsoult – Maffliers à Luzarches, située dans la commune de Belloy-en-France (département du Val-d’Oise). Elle se situe à 29,2 km de la gare de Paris-Nord.
C’est une gare SNCF desservie par les trains du réseau Transilien Paris-Nord (ligne H).

La gare de Belloy – Saint-Martin est située à l’écart des agglomérations, entre les communes de Belloy-en-France et de Saint-Martin-du-Tertre, au lieu-dit « Les briqueteries » le long de la route départementale 909.
Établie en plaine de France à 142 m d’altitude, point culminant de la ligne, au pied de la butte-témoin occupée par la forêt de Carnelle, elle se situe au point kilométrique 29,168 de la ligne de Montsoult – Maffliers à Luzarches, courte antenne à voie unique de onze kilomètres de long maillots de foot en ligne 2016. Située à mi-parcours de la ligne, elle est la seule gare du parcours à posséder deux voies à quai, avec la gare terminale de Luzarches, afin de permettre les croisements. L’évitement est contrôlé par une « commande centralisée de voie de gauche » (CCVG), télécommandée depuis Montsoult. Elle constitue le second point d’arrêt de la ligne après Villaines et précède la gare de Viarmes.
Le nombre de voyageurs quotidiens était inférieur à 500 en 2002. En 2012 lancel sac à main 2016, 250 voyageurs ont pris le train dans cette gare chaque jour ouvré de la semaine.
Gare SNCF, elle dispose d’un bâtiment voyageurs, avec un guichet, ouvert du lundi au vendredi et fermé les samedis, dimanches et fêtes.
La gare est desservie par les trains de la ligne H du Transilien (réseau Paris-Nord), à raison d’un train par heure en heures creuses, et d’un train à la demi-heure aux heures de pointe.
Les trains sont généralement omnibus de Paris-Nord à Luzarches. Seuls les trains circulant aux heures de pointe sont semi-directs, ne desservant pas les gares d’Écouen – Ézanville, Domont et Bouffémont – Moisselles.
Les trajets sont assurés par des automotrices de type Z 20500 ou Z 20900 Massif Bogner Ski, ou depuis décembre 2009, Z 50000. Le temps de trajet est soccer jerseys 2016 outlet, selon les trains, de 38 à 44 minutes depuis Paris-Nord.
La gare est desservie par la ligne 47 du réseau de bus CIF et par la ligne 2 de la société de transports Keolis Val-d’Oise.
Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Ground freezing

Ground freezing is a construction technique used in circumstances where soil needs to be stabilized so it will not collapse next to excavations, or to prevent contaminates spilled into soil from being leached away. Ground freezing has been used for at least one hundred years.
Pipes are run through the soil to be frozen 2016 chanel tassen, and then refrigerants are run through the pipes 2016 hermes tassen, freezing the soil. Frozen soil can be as hard as concrete.
Soil contaminated with radioactive elements that leaked from Japan’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was contained through ground freezing.
Boston’s big dig used ground freezing during some of its tunneling, to allow its wide tunnels to be built under or through soil that supported existing infrastructure that would have been difficult or expensive to support using more traditional excavation methods.
Some ground freezing projects use common salt brine as the refrigerant. But other projects benefit from using more exotic refrigerants, like liquid nitrogen 2016 hermes schoenen.
In Northern Canada and Arctic Alaska, passive pipe systems are used that do not require any external power to keep the ground frozen. These systems use in-ground evaporators and above-ground radiators filled with liquid refrigerant. When ambient temperatures fall below ground temperatures, the liquid vapor starts condensing in the radiator, reducing the pressure in the system causing the liquid in the evaporator to boil and evaporate. This process results in heat transfer from the ground to the air and keeps the ground in a permanent frozen state 2016 chanel tassen.

Iron Man (2008 film)

Iron Man is a 2008 American superhero film featuring the Marvel Comics character of the same name, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Paramount Pictures.1 It is the first film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. The film was directed by Jon Favreau, with a screenplay by Mark Fergus & Hawk Ostby and Art Marcum & Matt Holloway. It stars Robert Downey Jr., Terrence Howard, Jeff Bridges, Shaun Toub and Gwyneth Paltrow. In Iron Man, Tony Stark, an industrialist and master engineer, builds a powered exoskeleton and becomes the technologically advanced superhero Iron Man.
The film had been in development since 1990 at Universal Pictures, 20th Century Fox, or New Line Cinema at various times, before Marvel Studios reacquired the rights in 2006. Marvel put the project in production as its first self-financed film, with Paramount Pictures as its distributor. Favreau signed on as director, aiming for a naturalistic feel, and he chose to shoot the film primarily in California, rejecting the East Coast setting of the comics to differentiate the film from numerous superhero films set in New York City-esque environments. During filming, the actors were free to create their own dialogue because pre-production was focused on the story and action. Rubber and metal versions of the armors, created by Stan Winston’s company, were mixed with computer-generated imagery to create the title character.
Iron Man premiered in Sydney on April 14, 2008, and was released in theaters on May 2, 2008. The film was a critical and commercial success, grossing over $585 million and garnering widespread critical acclaim, with Downey’s performance as Tony Stark particularly praised. The American Film Institute selected the film as one of the ten best of the year. A sequel, Iron Man 2, was released on May 7, 2010, and another sequel, Iron Man 3, was released on May 3, 2013.
Genius, billionaire, and playboy Tony Stark, who has inherited the defense contractor Stark Industries from his father, is in war-torn Afghanistan with his friend and military liaison, Lieutenant Colonel James Rhodes to demonstrate the new “Jericho” missile. The convoy is ambushed and Stark is critically wounded by one of his own rocket propelled grenades. He is captured and imprisoned in a cave by the terrorist group the Ten Rings, and an electromagnet is grafted into his chest by fellow captive Yinsen to keep the shrapnel shell shards that wounded him from reaching his heart and killing him. Ten Rings leader Raza offers Stark freedom in exchange for building a Jericho missile for the group, but Tony and Yinsen agree Raza will not keep his word.
Stark and Yinsen secretly build a powerful electric generator called an arc reactor to power Stark’s electromagnet and a suit of powered armor to aid in their escape. Although they keep the suit hidden almost to completion, the Ten Rings attack the workshop when they discover their intentions. Yinsen sacrifices himself to divert them while the suit powers up. The armored Stark battles his way out of the cave to find the dying Yinsen, then in anger burns the Ten Rings weapons and flies away, crashing in the desert and destroying the suit. After being rescued by Rhodes, Stark returns home and announces that his company will no longer manufacture weapons. Obadiah Stane, his father’s old partner and the company’s manager, advises Stark that this may ruin Stark Industries and his father’s legacy. In his home workshop, Stark builds an improved version of his suit, as well as a more powerful arc reactor for his chest. Personal assistant Pepper Potts places the original reactor inside a small glass showcase. Though Stane requests details, Stark keeps his work to himself.
At a charity event held by Stark Industries, reporter Christine Everhart informs Stark that his company’s weapons, including the Jericho, were recently delivered to the Ten Rings and are being used to attack Yinsen’s home village, Gulmira. Stark also learns Stane is trying to replace him as head of the company. Enraged by these revelations, Stark dons his new armor and flies to Afghanistan, where he saves Yinsen’s village. While flying home, Stark is shot at by two F-22 Raptor fighter jets. He reveals his secret identity to Rhodes over the phone in an attempt to end the attack. Meanwhile, the Ten Rings gather the pieces of Stark’s prototype suit and meet with Stane, who subdues Raza with a sonic device and has the rest of the group killed. Stane has a new suit reverse engineered from the wreckage. Seeking to find any other weapons delivered to the Ten Rings, Stark sends Pepper to hack into the company computer system from Stane’s office. She discovers Stane has been supplying the terrorists and hired the Ten Rings to kill Stark, but the group reneged. Potts meets with Agent Phil Coulson of S.H.I.E.L.D., a counter-terrorism agency, to inform him of Stane’s activities.
Stane’s scientists cannot duplicate Stark’s arc reactor so Stane ambushes Stark at home and takes his, though Stark manages to get to his original reactor to replace the taken one. Potts and several S.H.I.E.L.D. agents attempt to arrest Stane, but he dons his suit and attacks them. Stark fights Stane, but is outmatched without his new reactor to run his suit at full capacity. Stark lures Stane atop the Stark Industries building and instructs Potts to overload the large arc reactor there. This unleashes a massive electrical surge that causes Stane and his armor to fall into the exploding reactor, killing him. The next day, at a press conference, Stark admits to being the superhero the press has dubbed “Iron Man”.
In a post-credits scene, S.H.I.E.L.D. Director Nick Fury visits Stark at home, telling him that Iron Man is not “the only superhero in the world”, and explaining that he wants to discuss the “Avengers Initiative”.
Additionally, Faran Tahir appears as Raza, the leader of the Ten Rings; Paul Bettany voices J.A.R.V.I.S., Stark’s personal AI system; Leslie Bibb portrays Christine Everhart, a reporter for Vanity Fair; and Clark Gregg appears as Phil Coulson, an agent of S.H.I.E.L.D.. Will Lyman provides the voiceover during the opening award ceremony. Samuel L. Jackson cameos as Nick Fury, director of S.H.I.E.L.D., in a post-credits scene. Jackson’s face was previously used as the model for that of the Ultimate Marvel imprint version of Nick Fury. Other cameos in the film include: Stan Lee as himself, being mistaken for Hugh Hefner by Stark at a party; director Jon Favreau as Happy Hogan, Stark’s bodyguard and chauffeur; Tom Morello, who also provides additional guitar music for the film, as a terrorist guard; and Jim Cramer as himself. Ghostface Killah had a cameo in a scene where Stark briefly stays in Dubai, but the scene was cut from the theatrical release for pacing reasons.
In April 1990, Universal Studios bought the rights to develop Iron Man for the big screen, with Stuart Gordon to direct a low-budget film based on the property, but by February 1996, 20th Century Fox had acquired the rights from Universal. In January 1997, Nicolas Cage expressed interest in portraying the character, while in September 1998, Tom Cruise expressed interest in producing as well as starring in an Iron Man film. Jeff Vintar and Iron Man co-creator Stan Lee co-wrote a story for Fox, which Vintar adapted into a screenplay. It included a new science-fiction origin for the character, and featured MODOK as the villain. Tom Rothman, President of Production at Fox, credited the screenplay with finally making him understand the character. In May 1999, Jeffrey Caine was hired to rewrite Vintar and Lee’s script. That October, Quentin Tarantino was approached to write and direct the film. Fox sold the rights to New Line Cinema the following December, reasoning that although the Vintar/Lee script was strong, the studio had too many Marvel superheroes in development, and “we can’t make them all.”
“We worked with Michael Crichton’s researchers to find a grounded realistic way to deal with the suit. The idea was he needed the suit to stay alive. He’s the same guy we used with Spider-Man 2 to come up with Doc Ock’s inhibitor chips and what the arms are made of and how they work. […] Mandarin was an Indonesian terrorist who masqueraded as a rich playboy who Tony knew.”
By July 2000, the film was being written for New Line by Ted Elliott, Terry Rossio, and Tim McCanlies. McCanlies’ script used the idea of a Nick Fury cameo to set up his own film. In June 2001, New Line entered talks with Joss Whedon, a fan of the character, to direct 2016 chanel kleding, and in December 2002, McCanlies had turned in a completed script. In December 2004, the studio attached director Nick Cassavetes to the project for a target 2006 release. Screenplay drafts were written by Alfred Gough, Miles Millar, and David Hayter, and pitted Iron Man against his father Howard Stark, who becomes War Machine. After two years of unsuccessful development, and the deal with Cassavetes falling through, New Line Cinema returned the film rights to Marvel.
In November 2005, Marvel Studios worked to start development from scratch, and announced Iron Man as their first independent feature, as the character was their only major one not already depicted in live action. According to associate producer Jeremy Latcham, “we went after about 30 writers and they all passed”, saying they were uninterested in the project due to both the relative obscurity of the character and it being a solely Marvel production. Even the rewrites when the film had a script lead to many refusals. In order to gain more awareness for Iron Man to the general public, and put him on the same level of popularity as Spider-Man or Hulk, Marvel conducted focus groups to help remove the general thought that the character was a robot, despite a man being inside the armor. After the groups proved successful, the information Marvel received helped them formulate a plan to “build awareness ahead of the movie’s release”, which included three animated short films called “Iron Man Advertorials”, which were produced by Tim Miller and Blur Studio.
Jon Favreau was hired in April 2006 to direct the film. Favreau had wanted to work with Marvel producer Avi Arad on another film after they both worked on Daredevil. Favreau celebrated getting the job by going on a diet, and lost seventy pounds. The director found the opportunity to create a politically ambitious “ultimate spy movie” in Iron Man, citing inspiration from Tom Clancy, James Bond, and RoboCop. Favreau described his approach as similar to an independent film — “[i]f Robert Altman had directed Superman” — and also cited Batman Begins as an inspiration. He wanted to make Iron Man a story of an adult man literally reinventing himself after discovering the world is far more complex than he originally believed. Favreau changed the Vietnam War origin of the character to Afghanistan, as he did not want to do a period piece. Art Marcum & Matt Holloway were hired to write the script, while Mark Fergus & Hawk Ostby wrote another version, with Favreau compiling both team’s scripts, and John August then ‘polishing’ the combined version. Comic book staff Mark Millar, Brian Michael Bendis, Joe Quesada, Tom Brevoort, Axel Alonso, and Ralph Macchio were also called upon by Favreau to give advice on the script. Favreau, as he prepared to film Iron Man in a complex that once belonged to Hughes Aircraft, got a tour with Robert Downey Jr. of SpaceX from Elon Musk, Downey said “Elon was someone Tony probably hung out with and partied with, or more likely they went on some weird jungle trek together to drink concoctions with the shamans.”
Choosing a villain was difficult, because Favreau felt Iron Man’s archnemesis, the Mandarin, would not feel realistic, especially after Mark Millar gave his opinion on the script. He felt only in a sequel, with an altered tone, would the fantasy of the Mandarin’s rings be appropriate. The decision to push him into the background is comparable to Sauron in The Lord of the Rings, or Palpatine in Star Wars. Favreau also wanted Iron Man to face a giant enemy. The switch from Mandarin to Obadiah Stane was done after Bridges was cast, with Stane originally intended to become a villain in the sequel. The Crimson Dynamo was also a villain in early drafts of the script. Favreau felt it was important to include intentional inside references for fans of the comics, such as giving the two fighter jets that attack Iron Man the call signs of “Whiplash 1” and “Whiplash 2,” a reference to the comic book villain Whiplash, and including Captain America’s shield in Stark’s workshop. The post-credits sequence that introduces Samuel L. Jackson as Nick Fury was written by comics writer Brian Michael Bendis.
Production was based in the former Hughes Company soundstages in Playa Vista, Los Angeles, California. Howard Hughes was one of the inspirations for the comic book, and the filmmakers acknowledged the coincidence that they would film Iron Man creating the flying Mark III where the Hughes H-4 Hercules was built. Favreau rejected the East Coast setting of the comic books because many superhero films had already been set there. Filming began on March 12, 2007, with the first few weeks spent on Stark’s captivity in Afghanistan. The cave where Stark is imprisoned was a 150- to 200-yard (150–200 m) long set, which had movable forks in the caverns to allow greater freedom for the film’s crew. Production designer J. Michael Riva saw footage of a Taliban fighter in Afghanistan, and saw the cold breath as he spoke: realizing remote caves are actually very cold, Riva placed an air conditioning system in the set. He also sought Downey’s advice about makeshift objects in prison, such as a sock being used to make tea. Afterwards, Stark’s capture was filmed at Lone Pine, and other exterior scenes in Afghanistan were filmed at Olancha Sand Dunes, where the crew endured two days of 40 to 60-mile per hour (60 to 100 km/h) winds. Filming at Edwards Air Force Base began in mid-April, and ended on May 2. Exterior shots of Stark’s home were digitally added to footage of Point Dume in Malibu, while the interior was built at Playa Vista, where Favreau and Riva aimed to make Stark’s home look less futuristic and more “grease monkey”. Filming concluded on June 25, 2007, at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas, Nevada. Favreau, a newcomer to action films, remarked, “I’m shocked that I [was] on schedule. I thought that there were going to be many curveballs”. He hired “people who are good at creating action”, so “the human story [felt] like it belongs to the comic book genre”.
There was much improvisation in dialogue scenes, because the script was not completed when filming began (the filmmakers had focused on the story making sense and planning the action). Favreau acknowledged that improvisation would make the film feel more natural. Some scenes were shot with two cameras to capture lines said on the spot. Multiple takes were done, as Downey wanted to try something new each time. It was Downey’s idea to have Stark hold a news conference on the floor, and he created the speech Stark makes when demonstrating the Jericho weapon. Brian Michael Bendis wrote three pages of dialogue for the Nick Fury cameo scene, with the filmmakers choosing the best lines for filming. The cameo was filmed with a skeleton crew in order to keep it a secret, but rumors appeared on the Internet only days later. Marvel Studios’s Kevin Feige subsequently had the scene removed from all preview prints in order to maintain the surprise and keep fans guessing.
Favreau wanted the film to be believable by showing the construction of the suit in its three stages. Stan Winston, a fan of the comic book, and his company built metal and rubber versions of the armors. They had previously worked on Favreau’s Zathura. Favreau’s main concern with the effects was whether the transition between the computer-generated and practical costumes would be too obvious. Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) was hired to create the bulk of the visual effects, with additional work being completed by The Orphanage and The Embassy; Favreau trusted ILM after seeing Pirates of the Caribbean: At World’s End and Transformers. The Mark I design was intended to look like it was built from spare parts. The back is less armored than the front, because Stark would use his resources for a forward attack. It also foreshadows the design of Stane’s armor. A single 90-pound (41 kg) version was built, causing concern when a stuntman fell over inside it, though both the stuntman and the suit were unscathed. The armor was also designed to only have its top half worn at times. The Embassy created a digital version of the Mark I. Stan Winston Studios built a 10-foot (3.0 m), 800-pound (360 kg) animatronic version of “Iron Monger” (Obadiah Stane), a name which Obadiah Stane calls Tony Stark and himself earlier in the film as a reference, but is never actually used for the suit itself in the film. The animatronic required five operators for the arm, and was built on a gimbal to simulate walking. A scale model was used for the shots of it being built.
The Mark II resembles an airplane prototype, with visible flaps. Iron Man comic book artist Adi Granov designed the Mark III with illustrator Phil Saunders. Granov’s designs were the primary inspiration for the film’s, and he came on board the film after he recognized his work on Jon Favreau’s MySpace page. Saunders streamlined Granov’s concept art, making it stealthier and less cartoonish in its proportions. Sometimes, Downey would only wear the helmet, sleeves and chest of the costume over a motion capture suit. For shots of the Mark III flying, it was animated to look realistic by taking off slowly, and landing quickly. To generate shots of Iron Man and the F-22 Raptors battling, cameras were flown in the air to provide reference for physics, wind and frost on the lenses. For further study of the physics of flying, skydivers were filmed in a vertical wind tunnel. Phil Saunders created concept art for the War Machine armor and said that it was originally intended to be used in the film but was “cut from the script about halfway through pre-production.” Saunders said that the War Machine armor “was going to be called the Mark IV armor and would have had weaponized swap-out parts that would be worn over the original Mark III armor,” and that it “would have been worn by Tony Stark in the final battle sequence.”
Composer Ramin Djawadi, an Iron Man fan who still has issues of the comic from the late 1970s, has also been into heavy metal music since the early 1990s. While he normally composes after watching an assembly cut, Djawadi began work after seeing the teaser trailer. Favreau clearly envisioned a focus on “heavy” guitar in the score, and Djawadi composed the music on that instrument before arranging it for orchestra. The composer said Downey’s performance inspired the several Iron Man themes (for his different moods), as well as Stark’s playboy leitmotif. Djawadi’s favorite of the Iron Man themes is the “kickass” because of its “rhythmic pattern that is a hook on its own. Very much like a machine.” The other themes are “not so much character based but rather plot based that carry you through the movie”. Tom Morello of Rage Against the Machine and Audioslave contributed additional guitar work to the film’s soundtrack.
The premiere was held at the Greater Union theater at George Street, Sydney, on April 14, 2008. The film was released in the United States on May 2, 2008, while the international release was pushed up to April 30, 2008.
Marvel and Paramount modeled their marketing campaign for Iron Man on that of Transformers. In May 2008, Sega released an official tie-in video game based on the film on multiple gaming platforms. Downey, Howard and Taub reprise their roles from the film. A 30-second spot for the film aired during a Super Bowl XLII break. 6,400 7-Eleven stores in the United States helped promote the film, and LG Group also made a deal with Paramount. Hasbro created figures of armors from the film, as well as Titanium Man (who appears in the video game) and the armor from the World War Hulk comics. Worldwide, Burger King and Audi promoted the film. Jon Favreau was set to direct a commercial for the fast-food chain, as Michael Bay did for Transformers. In the film, Tony Stark drives an Audi R8, and also has an “American cheeseburger” from Burger King after his rescue from Afghanistan, as part of the studio’s product placement deal with the respective companies. Three other vehicles, the Audi S6 sedan, Audi S5 sports coupe and the Audi Q7 SUV, also appear in the film. Audi created a tie-in website, as General Motors did for Transformers. Oracle Corporation also promoted the film on its site. Several tie-in comics were released for the film.
The film was released on DVD and Blu-ray Disc on September 30, 2008, in North America, and October 27, 2008 in Europe. DVD sales were very successful, selling over 4 million copies the first week and generating a gross of over US$93 million. There were a total of 9 million copies sold and an accumulated total sales of over $160 million (not including Blu-ray). For the home releases of the film prada schoenen 2016, the image on the newspaper Stark reads before he announces he is Iron Man had to be altered because of amateur photographer Ronnie Adams filing a lawsuit against Paramount and Marvel for using his on-location spy photo in the scene. A Wal-Mart-exclusive release included a preview of Iron Man: Armored Adventures.
The film was also collected in a 10-disc box set titled “Marvel Cinematic Universe: Phase One – Avengers Assembled” which includes all of the Phase One films in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. It was released on April 2, 2013.
Iron Man earned $318.4 million in North America and $266.8 million in other territories, for a worldwide gross of $585.1 million.
In its opening weekend, Iron Man grossed $98,618,668 in 4,105 theaters in the United States and Canada, ranking No. 1 at the box office, giving it the eleventh biggest-opening weekend at the time, ninth-widest release in terms of theaters, and the third highest-grossing opening weekend of 2008 behind Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull and The Dark Knight. It grossed $35.2 million on its first day, giving it the thirteenth biggest-opening day at the time. Iron Man had the second-best premiere for a non-sequel, behind Spider-Man, and the fourth biggest-opening for a superhero film. Iron Man was also the No. 1 film in the U.S. and Canada in its second weekend, grossing $51.1 million, giving it the twelfth-best second weekend and the fifth-best for a non-sequel. On June 18, 2008, Iron Man became that year’s first film to pass the $300 million mark for the domestic box office.
In May 2008, Iron Man was identified as the “best-reviewed film of the year so far” by Jen Yamato of review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, with the site reporting that at that time the film had received a rating of 95% based on 107 reviews, a rating that held its place to January 2010. ‹See TfD›
The review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reported a 94% approval rating with an average rating of 7.7/10 based on 266 reviews. The website’s consensus reads, “Director Jon Favreau and star Robert Downey make this smart, high impact superhero movie one that even non-comics fans can enjoy.” On Metacritic, the film achieved an average score of 79 out of 100, based on 38 critics, signifying “generally favorable reviews”.
Among the major trade journals, Todd McCarthy of Variety called the film an “expansively entertaining special effects extravaganza” with “fresh energy and stylistic polish”, while Kirk Honeycutt of The Hollywood Reporter praised the film, while nonetheless finding “disappointment [in] a climatic [sic] battle between different Iron Man prototypes […] how did Tony’s nemesis learn how to use the suit?” In one of the first major-daily newspaper reviews, Frank Lovece of Newsday lauded the film’s “emotional truth […] pitch-perfect casting and plausibly rendered super-science” that made it “faithful to the source material while updating it – and recognizing what’s made that material so enduring isn’t just the high-tech cool of a man in a metal suit, but the human condition that got him there”. A. O. Scott of The New York Times called the film “an unusually good superhero picture. Or at least – since it certainly has its problems – a superhero movie that’s good in unusual ways.” Among the specialty press, Garth Franklin of Dark Horizons commended the “impressive sets and mechanics that combine smoothly with relatively seamless CG”, and said, “Robert Downey Jr., along with director Jon Favreau […] help this rise above formula. The result is something that, whilst hardly original or groundbreaking, is nevertheless refreshing in its earnestness to avoid dark dramatic stylings in favor of an easy-going, crowd-pleasing action movie with a sprinkle of anti-war and redemption themes”.
Among major metropolitan weeklies, David Edelstein of New York magazine called the film “a shapely piece of mythmaking […] Favreau doesn’t go in for stylized comic-book frames, at least in the first half. He gets real with it – you’d think you were watching a military thriller”, while conversely, David Denby of The New Yorker put forth a negative review, claiming “a slightly depressed, going-through-the-motions feel to the entire show […] Gwyneth Paltrow, widening her eyes and palpitating, can’t do much with an antique role as Stark’s girl Friday, who loves him but can’t say so; Terrence Howard, playing a military man who chases around after Stark, looks dispirited and taken for granted”. IGN’s Todd Gilchrist recognized Downey as “the best thing” in a film that “functions on autopilot, providing requisite story developments and character details to fill in this default ‘origin story’ while the actors successfully breathe life into their otherwise conventional roles”. Noting the cultural elements of the film, Cristobal Giraldez Catalan of Bright Lights Film Journal wrote, “Iron Man is far more than playboy fantasy; it is American foreign policy realized without context [… and] with narrative and directorial precision, once again provides the high-fidelity misogyny and anti-Muslim rhetoric Hollywood is known for.”
Roger Ebert and Richard Corliss named Iron Man as among their favorite films of 2008. It was selected by the American Film Institute as one of the ten best films of the year, and by Empire magazine as one of The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time. Tony Stark was also selected by Empire as one of The 100 Greatest Movie Characters of All Time, and on their list of the 100 Greatest Fictional Characters, Fandomania prada zonnebril 2016.com ranked him at number 37.
The sequel, Iron Man 2, was released in the United States on May 7, 2010 with Jon Favreau and Robert Downey Jr. returning as director and lead 2016 dior tassen, respectively, with a screenplay by Justin Theroux. Don Cheadle replaces Terrence Howard in the role of Colonel Rhodes, who is also seen as War Machine. Also starring is Gwyneth Paltrow as Pepper Potts; Mickey Rourke as villain Ivan Vanko; Sam Rockwell as Justin Hammer; Scarlett Johansson as S.H.I.E.L.D. agent Natasha Romanoff; and Samuel L. Jackson as S.H.I.E.L.D. director Nick Fury.
Disney, Marvel Studios, and Paramount Pictures announced a May 3, 2013 release date for Iron Man 3. Favreau said in December 2010 that he would not direct Iron Man 3, opting to direct Magic Kingdom, but reprised his role as Happy Hogan. Shane Black directed Iron Man 3, from a screenplay by Drew Pearce. Robert Downey Jr. returned as Tony Stark, as did Gwyneth Paltrow as Pepper Potts and Don Cheadle as Colonel Rhodes, who uses the moniker Iron Patriot. Guy Pearce starred as Aldrich Killian and Ben Kingsley as Trevor Slattery.

Business telephone system

A business telephone system is a multiline telephone system typically used in business environments, encompassing systems ranging from small key telephone systems to large-scale private branch exchanges.
A business telephone system differs from an installation of several telephones with multiple central office (CO) lines in that the CO lines used are directly controllable in key telephone systems from multiple telephone stations, and that such a system often provides additional features related to call handling. Business telephone systems are often broadly classified into key telephone systems, and private branch exchanges, but many hybrid systems exist.
A key telephone system was originally distinguished from a private branch exchange (PBX) in that it did not require an operator or attendant at the switchboard to establish connections between the central office trunks and stations, or between stations. Technologically, private branch exchanges share lineage with central office telephone systems, and in larger or more complex systems, may rival a central office system in capacity and features. With a key telephone system, a station user could control the connections directly using line buttons, which indicated the status of lines with built-in lamps.

Key telephone systems are primarily defined by arrangements with individual line selection buttons for each available telephone line. The earliest systems were known as wiring plans and simply consisted of telephone sets, keys, lamps, and wiring.
Key was a Bell System term of art for a customer-controlled switching system such as the line-buttons on the phones associated with such systems.
The wiring plans evolved into modular hardware building blocks with a variety of functionality and services in the 1A key telephone system developed in the Bell System in the 1930s.
Key systems can be built using three principal architectures: electromechanical shared-control, electronic shared-control, or independent key sets.
New installations of key telephone systems have become less common, as hybrid systems and private branch exchanges of comparable size have similar cost and greater functionality.
Before the advent of large-scale integrated circuits, key systems were typically composed of electromechanical components (relays) as were larger telephone switching systems.
The systems marketed in North America as the 1A, 6A, 1A1 and the 1A2 Key System are typical examples and sold for many decades

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. The 1A family of Western Electric Company (WECo) key telephone units (KTUs) were introduced in the late 1930s and remained in use to the 1950s. 1A equipment was primitive and required at least two KTUs per line; one for line termination and one for station (telephone instrument) termination. The telephone instrument commonly used by 1A systems was the WECo 300-series telephone. Introduced in 1953, 1A1 key systems simplified wiring with a single KTU for both line and station termination, and increased the features available. As the 1A1 systems became commonplace, requirements for intercom features grew bottega veneta 2016. The original intercom KTUs, WECo Model 207, were wired for a single talk link, that is, a single conversation on the intercom at a time. The WECo 6A dial intercom system provided two talk links and was often installed as the dial intercom in a 1A1 or 1A2 key system. The 6A systems were complex, troublesome and expensive, and never became popular. The advent of 1A2 technology in the 1964 simplified key system set up and maintenance. These continued to be used throughout the 1980s, when the arrival of electronic key systems with their easier installation and greater features signaled the end of electromechanical key systems.
Two lesser-known key systems were used at airports for air traffic control communications, the 102 and 302 key systems. These were uniquely designed for communications between the air traffic control tower and radar approach control (RAPCON) or ground control approach (GCA), and included radio line connections.
Automatic Electric Company also produced a family of key telephone equipment, some of it compatible with Western Electric equipment, but it did not gain the widespread use enjoyed by Western Electric equipment.
With the advent of LSI ICs, the same architecture could be implemented much less expensively than was possible using relays. In addition, it was possible to eliminate the many-wire cabling and replace it with much simpler cable similar to (or even identical to) that used by non-key systems. Electronic shared-control systems led quickly to the modern hybrid telephone system, as the features of PBX and key system quickly merged. One of the most recognized such systems is the AT&T Merlin.
Additionally, these more modern systems allowed a diverse set of features including:
Features could be added or modified simply using software, allowing easy customization of these systems. The stations were easier to maintain than the previous electromechanical key systems, as they used efficient LEDs instead of incandescent light bulbs for line status indication.
LSI also allowed smaller systems to distribute the control (and features) into individual telephone sets that don’t require any single shared control unit. Generally, these systems are used with a relatively few telephone sets and it is often more difficult to keep the feature set (such as speed-dialing numbers) in synchrony between the various sets.
Into the 21st century dior online, the distinction between key systems and PBX systems has become increasingly blurred. Early electronic key systems used dedicated handsets which displayed and allowed access to all connected PSTN lines and stations.
The modern key system now supports SIP, ISDN, analog handsets (in addition to its own proprietary handsets – usually digital) as well as a raft of features more traditionally found on larger PBX systems. Their support for both analog and digital signaling, and of some PBX functionality gives rise to the hybrid designation.
A hybrid system typically has some call appearance buttons that directly correspond to individual lines and/or stations, but may also support direct dialing to extensions or outside lines without selecting a line appearance.
The modern key system is usually fully digital, although analog variants persist and some systems implement VOIP services. Effectively, the aspects that distinguish a PBX from a hybrid key system are the amount, scope and complexity of the features and facilities offered.
Hybrid systems are a common tool in the financial services industry used on trading floors. These advanced hybrid key systems generally only require attached PBXs for interaction with back-office staff and voicemail. These systems commonly have their front end units referred to as Turrets and are notable for their presentation of hoot-n-holler circuits. Multiple Hoots are presented to multiple users over multiplexed speakers to multiple locations.
A private branch exchange (PBX) is a telephone exchange or switching system that serves a private organization and performs concentration of central office lines or trunks and provides intercommunication between a large number of telephone stations in the organization. The central office lines provide connections to the public switched telephone network and the concentration aspect of a PBX permits the shared use of these lines between all stations in the organization. The intercommunication aspect[clarify] allows two or more stations to establish telephone or conferencing calls between them without using the central office equipment.[clarify]
Each PBX-connected station, such as a telephone set, a fax machine, or a computer modem, is often referred to as an extension and has a designated extension telephone number that may or may not be mapped automatically to the numbering plan of the central office and the telephone number block allocated to the PBX.
Initially, PBX systems offered the primary advantage of cost savings for internal phone calls: handling the circuit switching locally reduced charges for telephone service via central-office lines. As PBX systems gained popularity, they began to feature services not available in the public network, such as hunt groups, call forwarding, and extension dialing. From the 1960s a simulated PBX known as Centrex provided similar features from the central telephone exchange.
A PBX differs from a key telephone system (KTS) in that users of a key system manually select their own outgoing lines on special telephone sets that control buttons for this purpose, while PBXs select the outgoing line automatically or, formerly, by an operator. The telephone sets connected to a PBX do not normally have special keys for central-office line control, but it is not uncommon for key systems to be connected to a PBX to extend its services.
A PBX, in contrast to a key system, employs an organizational numbering plan for its stations. In addition, a dial plan determines whether additional digit sequences must be prefixed when dialing to obtain access to a central-office trunk. Modern number-analysis systems permit users to dial internal and external telephone numbers without special codes to distinguish the intended destination.
The term PBX originated when switchboard operators managed company switchboards manually using cord circuits. As automated electromechanical switches and later electronic switching systems gradually replaced the manual systems, the terms private automatic branch exchange (PABX) and private manual branch exchange (PMBX) differentiated them. Solid-state digital systems were sometimes referred to as electronic private automatic branch exchanges (EPABX). As of 2016[update], the term PBX is by far the most widely recognized.[citation needed] The acronym now applies to all types of complex, in-house telephony switching systems.
Two significant developments during the 1990s led to new types of PBX systems. One was the massive growth of data networks and increased public understanding of packet switching. Companies needed packet-switched networks for data, so using them for telephone calls proved tempting, and the availability of the Internet as a global delivery-system made packet-switched communications even more attractive. These factors led to the development of the voice over IP PBX, or IP-PBX.
The other trend involved the idea of focusing on core competence. PBX services had always been hard to arrange for smaller companies, and many[quantify] companies realized that handling their own telephony was not their core competence. These considerations gave rise to the concept of the hosted PBX. In wireline telephony, the original hosted PBX was the Centrex service provided by telcos since the 1960s; later competitive offerings evolved into the modern competitive local exchange carrier. In voice over IP, hosted solutions are easier to implement as the PBX may be located at and managed by any telephone service provider, connecting to the individual extensions via the Internet. The upstream provider no longer needs to run direct, local leased lines to the served premises.
A PBX often includes:
Since the advent of Internet telephony (Voice over IP) technologies, PBX development has tended toward the IP PBX, which uses the Internet Protocol to carry calls. Most modern PBXs support VoIP. ISDN PBX systems also replaced some traditional PBXs in the 1990s, as ISDN offers features such as conference calling, call forwarding, and programmable caller ID. As of 2015 ISDN is being phased out by most major telecommunication carriers throughout Europe in favour of all-IP networks, with some expecting complete migration by 2025 Originally having started as an organization’s manual switchboard or attendant console operated by a telephone operator or just simply the operator, PBXs have evolved into VoIP centers that are hosted by the operators or even manufacturers.
Even though VoIP is considered[by whom?] the future of telephony, the circuit switched network remains the core of communications, and the existing PBX systems are competitive in services with modern IP systems. Five distinct scenarios exist:
For the option to call from IP network to the circuit-switched PSTN (SS7/ISUP), the hosted solutions include interconnecting media gateways.
Historically, the expense of full-fledged PBX systems has put them out of reach of small businesses and individuals. However, since the 1990s many small, consumer-grade and consumer-size PBXs have become available. These systems are not comparable in size, robustness or flexibility to commercial-grade PBXs, but still provide many features.
The first consumer PBX systems used analog (POTS) telephone lines, typically supporting four private analog and one public analog line. They were the size of a small cigar box. In Europe these systems for analog phones were followed by consumer-grade PBXs for ISDN. Using small PBXs for ISDN is a logical step, since the ISDN basic rate interface provides two logical phone lines (via two ISDN B channels) which can be used in parallel. With the adoption of VoIP by consumers, consumer VoIP PBXs have appeared, with PBX functions becoming simple additional software features of consumer-grade routers and switches. Additionally, many telecommunications providers now offer Hosted PBX systems where the provider actually hosts the PBX and the phone handsets are connected to it through an internet connection.
Open source projects have provided PBX-style features since the 1990s. These projects provide flexibility, features, and programmability.
Functionally, the PBX performs four main call processing duties:
In addition to these basic functions, PBXs offer many other calling features and capabilities, with different manufacturers providing different features in an effort to differentiate their products. Common capabilities include (manufacturers may have a different name for each capability):
Interfaces for connecting extensions to a PBX include:
Interfaces for connecting PBXs to each other include:
Interfaces for connecting PBXs to trunk lines include:
Interfaces for collecting data from the PBX:
A data record from a PBX or other telecommunication system that provides the statistics for a telephone call is usually termed a call detail record (CDR) or a Station Messaging Detail Record (SMDR).
Virtual PBX systems or hosted PBX systems deliver PBX functionality as a service, available over the public switched telephone network (PSTN) or the Internet. Hosted PBXs are typically provided by a telephone company or service provider, using equipment located in the premises of a telephone exchange or the provider’s data center. This means the customer does not need to buy or install PBX equipment. Generally the service is provided by a lease agreement and the provider can, in some configurations, use the same switching equipment to service multiple hosted PBX customers.
The first hosted PBX services were feature-rich compared to most premises-based systems of the time. Some PBX functions prada outlet, such as follow-me calling, appeared in a hosted service before they became available in hardware PBX equipment. Since introduction, updates and new offerings have moved feature sets in both directions. It is possible to get hosted PBX services that include feature sets from minimal functionality to advanced feature combinations.
In addition to the features available from premises-based PBX systems, hosted-PBX:
The ongoing migration of most major telecommunication carriers to IP based networks, coupled with the rise in Cloud Communications has resulted in a significant rise in the uptake of hosted PBX solutions.
A mobile PBX is a hosted PBX service that extends fixed-line PBX functionality to mobile devices such as cellular handsets, smartphones and PDA phones by provisioning them as extensions. Mobile PBX services also can include fixed-line phones. Mobile PBX systems are different from other hosted PBX systems that simply forward data or calls to mobile phones by allowing the mobile phone itself, through the use of buttons, keys and other input devices, to control PBX phone functions and to manage communications without having to call into the system first.
A mobile PBX may exploit the functionality available in smartphones to run custom applications to implement the PBX specific functionality.
In addition, a mobile PBX may create extension identifiers for each handset that allow to dial other cell phones in the PBX via their extension shortcut, instead of a PSTN number.
An IP PBX handles voice signals under Internet protocol, bringing benefits for computer telephony integration (CTI). An IP-PBX can exist as physical hardware, or can carry out its functions virtually, performing the call-routing activities of the traditional PBX or key system as a software system. The virtual version is also called a ” -Soft PBX -“.

Gelber Frauenmantel

Der Gelbe Frauenmantel (Alchemilla flavovirens) ist eine Art aus der Gattung der Frauenmantel (Alchemilla).
Der Gelbe Frauenmantel ist eine kräftige, mittelgroße Pflanze. Die Art welkt leicht. Die Blattspreiten der Grundblätter haben eine Breite von 1 2015 Rabatt adidas Trikots online,5 bis 6 Zentimeter und sind nieren- bis kreisförmig, in der Regel siebenteilig, manchmal auch neunteilig, 200° bis 360° umfassend und wellig. Die Die Grundblattspreiten sind auf (70) 84 bis 100 % ihres Radius geteilt, Die Blättchenverwachsung beträgt 0 bis 8 Millimeter. Die Blättchen sind 1,5 bis 3 (selten ab 1 und bis 4) Mal so lang wie breit, länglich bis verkehrt-eiförmig, lange gefaltet, abgerundet und auf 50 bis 80 % ungezähnt. Die Oberseite der Blätter ist gelbgrün bis grasgrün Bogner Skijacke Damen 2016, die Unterseite dicht silberseidig. An den Blättchen befinden sich 6 bis 13, selten bis 15 Zähne. Diese sind 0,7 bis 2 Millimeter lang (was ungefähr 3 bis 7, selten bis zu 10 % des Radius der Spreite entspricht), 0,7 bis 4 Millimeter breit und weisen ein Verhältnis von Länge zu Breite von 0,5 bis 2, meist von 1 auf. Sie sind spitz(lich), ei-warzenförmig bis breit krumm-dreieckig, oft schwer sichtbar, dicht stehend oder, an großen Blättern Neueste Bogner Skijacken Online Shop, die unteren entfernt stehend. Der Endzahn ist meist kürzer. Die Blattstiele und die Stängel sind nicht gerötet. Die Stängel sind aufrecht, bis 200-blütig, 7 bis 20 Zentimeter lang und 1- bis 2-mal so lang wie die Blattstiele. Die Teilblütenstände sind dicht kugelig. Zumindest ein Teil von ihnen ist scheindoldig. Die Blütenstiele haben eine Länge von 1 bis 3 Wellensteyn Sale 2016, selten bis 6 Millimeter. Die Blüten sind 2 bis 4 Millimeter lang, 3 bis 6 Millimeter breit und gelbgrün. Die Kelchblätter sind 1- bis 1,2-mal so lang wie breit und waagerecht bis zurückgeschlagen. Die Griffel ragen heraus und sind 0,3 bis 0,7 Millimeter lang. Die Narbe ist 0,1 bis 0,15 Millimeter breit Ein Fünftel bis ein Drittel der Länge der Nüsschen ragt heraus.
Der Gelbe Frauenmantel kommt in den Westlichen Alpen und im Jura in der montanen bis subalpinen Stufe in Höhenlagen von 1300 bis 2100 Meter vor. Ihr Areal reicht vom südlichen Dauphiné bis Piemont, im Osten bis Tessin und im Norden bis in die Berner Alpen. Die Art wächst auf Matten über Kalk, in Kalkfelsspalten und auf Kalkgeröll, aber auch auf Flysch und Kalkschiefer. Sie ist in den Pflanzengesellschaften Seslerion albicantis (alpiner Blaugras-Rasen) und Potentillion caulescentis (Vegetation der Kalk-Felsspalten) anzutreffen.

Prévention des déchets

Une réorganisation et une clarification du contenu paraissent nécessaires. Discutez des points à améliorer en page de discussion ou précisez les sections à recycler en utilisant {{section à recycler}}.
La prévention des déchets peut être définie comme l’ensemble des mesures et des actions prises en amont (notamment au niveau de la conception, de la production, de la distribution et de la consommation d’un bien) visant à réduire l’ensemble des impacts environnementaux et à faciliter la gestion ultérieure des déchets (notamment par la réduction en amont des quantités de déchets produits et/ou la réduction de leur dangerosité ou toxicité ou par l’amélioration de leur caractère réutilisable ou valorisable…
Le déchet le plus facile et le moins coûteux à trier et à gérer est celui qu’on ne produit pas, comme le rappellent régulièrement en France les campagnes de l’Ademe ou la Semaine européenne de la réduction des déchets (SERD,).

Elle consiste, sur la base du principe des Trois R (réduire, réutiliser, recycler) à développer des stratégies individuelles et collectives permettant de :
Elle vise à minimiser la dangerosité et l’impact des produits sur l’environnement et la santé :
La prévention quantitative se répercute directement sur la balance de notre poubelle. Tandis que la prévention qualitative fait intervenir des paramètres plus difficiles à mesurer, comme la sécurité ou dangerosité d’un produit (nombre de micro-grammes de métaux lourds Sandro Outlet, équivalent-toxique, radioactivité, leurres hormonaux, etc.)
Elle vise à « réduire la « base matérielle » des économies modernes, c’est-à-dire les flux de matières nécessaires au fonctionnement de ces économies ». La dématérialisation paraît être une des voies alternatives à l’évolution consumériste non soutenable. Ce nouveau modèle combine des avantages économiques, sociaux et environnementaux. Par exemple, la ville de Vienne en Autriche, s’est lancée dans une vaste campagne de dématérialisation. Elle a donc choisi d’investir dans des campagnes de sensibilisation plutôt que dans des infrastructures d’élimination des déchets.
Dans le domaine industriel, la fourniture de services permet aux entreprises d’accroître leurs profits tout en nuisant au minimum à l’environnement. En effet, « quand une entreprise fournit un service relié au produit, elle assume la responsabilité de l’entretien, des réparations, de la disposition et du recyclage du produit durant les phases de l’utilisation et de la fin du cycle de vie. » Elle fait donc en sorte que le produit soit le moins problématique possible dans sa phase déchet et, par la même occasion, elle fidélise son client et s’assure ainsi une sorte de rente sur celui-ci.
L’utilisation de biens partagés s’inscrit dans le même ordre d’idées. Quand plusieurs personnes utilisent un bien sans en être propriétaire exclusif, le produit est utilisé de façon plus « efficiente » et, en cas de panne, un service de maintenance permet une utilisation encore plus durable du bien. Quelques exemples d’utilisations partagées d’un produit : des photocopieuses pour des associations, des lave-linge et sèche-linge pour de petites copropriétés, de l’outillage pour un lotissement…
Du point de vue de l’OCDE, par réutilisation des produits on entend « l’utilisation multiple d’un produit dans sa forme initiale crampons de football de puma pas cher, pour sa fonction d’origine ou une fonction alternative, avec ou sans remise à neuf. » La réparation, la revente, le don ou la consignation sont des méthodes qui évitent aux biens d’être jetés après que l’utilisateur n’en ait plus besoin. De plus la réutilisation est créatrice d’emplois locaux. Dans bien des cas, elle permet à des entreprises d’économies sociales de faire travailler des personnes peu qualifiées, qui sont souvent exclues du monde du travail.
Orienter le consommateur vers des comportements plus respectueux de l’environnement permettrait de faire baisser drastiquement le poids/volume des déchets. Seule une minorité de personnes agit dans ce sens, il faudrait donc s’attaquer au reste de la population afin de convaincre le plus grand nombre de la nécessité d’adopter ces comportements.
Les campagnes de sensibilisation qui ont le mieux fonctionné concernaient le tri des déchets, la collecte des piles et la collecte sélective. Malheureusement, ces conduites écologiques sont curatives et non préventives, et pour arriver à ces résultats, il a fallu des campagnes de communication massives.
La prévention consisterait à amener le grand public à éviter la consommation de biens inutiles, souvent par ailleurs produits dans des conditions sociales et environnementales déplorables et d’une piètre qualité et donc d’une durée d’utilisation réduite…
Distinguer prévention et tri sélectif Ces deux concepts sont complémentaires, mais dans l’esprit du consommateur ou du citoyen il y a une souvent confusion entre ces deux concepts. Trier ne doit pas empêcher une réduction préventive des déchets ; à la source (écoconception) et par les comportements d’achat.
Un premier Plan national de prévention des déchets a été lancé en 2004, ne contenant que des encouragements à des actions volontaires.
Il a été suivi 10 ans après (le 28 aout 2014) d’un second Plan national de prévention des déchets, plus contraignant, précisé par un arrêté ministérieltraduisant dans le droit français de l’environnement la directive européenne cadre sur les déchets de 2008, avec des objectifs, et des mesures sur 6 ans pour 2014-2020 ; ce plan national devient opposable aux futurs programmes locaux de prévention des déchets (et aux plans de prévention et de gestion des déchets dangereux, des déchets non dangereux et des déchets du BTP, trois types de déchets pour lesquels en 2014, le plan national n’a cependant pas voulu fixer d’objectif de réduction, alors que ces déchets aient continué à s’accroître dans les années 2010. Le ministère de l’Écologie propose seulement une stabilisation de la production annuelle de ces déchets).
Le nouveau plan (2014) constituera le volet « prévention » du Plan déchets 2020 que le gouvernement prépare en 2013-2014, avec un groupe de travail « prévention » au sein du Conseil national des déchets, dont le projet a été soumis à la consultation publique l’hiver 2013-2014 afin de recueillir les observations du public (dont certaines ont été prises en compte).
Il vise à « découpler la production de déchets de la croissance économique » afin de diminuer d’au moins 7 % de la production de déchets ménagers et assimilés (DMA) par habitant en 2020 par rapport au niveau de 2010. Le nombre des déchets concernés a été légèrement élargi, mais cet objectif ne fait que reprendre et prolonger l’objectif de la loi Grenelle 1 pour la période 2008-2013, et il reste difficile en France d’évaluer précisément la quantité de déchet déchets ménagers et assimilés produite et recyclée, faute d’indicateur adapté ou facile à renseigner. Selon le gouvernement une réduction de 7% a déjà été atteinte de 2008 à 2013 par certaines collectivités (Conseils généraux notamment, dont celui de l’Allier par exemple), qui aidées par l’Ademe karen millen france 2016, ont volontairement mis un plan de prévention/réduction en place, mais la crise de 2008 et la baisse de consommation qui l’a accompagné pourraient expliquer une partie de ce bon résultat. Ces plans locaux devraient devenir obligatoires (selon un décret en projet en 2014), et à mettre en place par les collectivités chargées de la gestion de ces déchets. Ceci sera fait au mieux avec 2 ans de retard car selon la loi Grenelle II, ces plans auraient du être adoptés « au plus tard le 1er janvier 2012 ». Un appel à projets “territoires zéro gaspillage, zéro déchet” a été lancé pour les accompagner.
La prévention doit s’appuyer sur 54 actions et treize axes stratégiques à mettre en place progressivement ; il s’agit notamment de développer des filières REP, lutter contre l’obsolescence programmée, prévenir les déchets d’entreprises et du BTP, les déchets verts (au profit du compostage in situ par exemple). Il s’agit encore de diminuer le gaspillage alimentaire et les déchets en mer, de promouvoir une consommation responsable, et une planification locale de la prévention, avec des administrations à rendre exemplaires.
En 2014, le ministère de l’Écologie propose de travailler sur la durée de vie des produits, la consigne et l’éco-modulation des barèmes de contributions dans le cadre des filières REP. L’ONGE FNE se réjouit de ces annonces, mais « restera vigilante pour qu’elles ne restent pas lettre morte. Quant aux nouveaux modèles économiques, tels que la re-fabrication, l’économie de fonctionnalité, la modularité des produits et des bâtiments 2016 maillots de football, ils ne font encore l’objet d’aucune mesure » regrette Patrick Hervier, pour le réseau prévention et gestion des déchets de France Nature Environnement.
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