Misha’an al-Juburi

Misha’an al-Juburi is an Iraqi politician from the Sunni Arab community, and member of Al-Arabiya Coalition He also was the led of Reconciliation and Liberation Bloc, which held three seats in the Iraqi Council of Representatives from 2005-2010. Juburi is the publisher of the al-Itijah al-Akhar newspaper and the owner of the Syrian-based Arrai TV. He is a Sheikh of the Al-Jiburi tribe, which is powerful in Salahuddin Governorate. As of 2016, he is a senior member of a parliamentary committee investigating official corruption, despite admitting to The Guardian in an interview that he is himself corrupt.

Al-Juburi was born in the mid-1950s in the town of al-Shirkat, located between Tikrit and Mosul. His father was a junior Sheikh of a branch of the powerful Juburi tribe.
In an interview in 1995, Juburi said the President met him in 1975 and gave him cash, a car and facilitated him becoming a journalist, buying his loyalty and admiration. During the Iran–Iraq War, he helped Saddam recruit 50,000 Juburi people to form the Special Republican Guard and Republican Guard. He said he became an “intimate friend” of Uday Hussein and “enjoyed the pleasures of Baghdad”.
In the late 1980s, his young son died and he went on television to criticise the hospital as incompetent, which resulted in him being jailed. After he was released he moved away from politics towards business, exporting wool from Salahuddin to Britain.
In 1989, he started planning a coup against the President. The coup was planned for Army Day in 1990 but was discovered before it could take place. Al-Jiburi was the only plotter to survive as he was outside the country at the time. Jibouris tried to assassinate him twice more, in 1991 by bombing a house he was staying in and in 1992, when al-Jiburi’s brother plotted to decapitate him. It has also been alleged that although Juburi’s brother was involved, Juburi himself was not involved in the coup attempt. Instead his critics have suggested that he fled Iraq after stealing large sums of money from Uday Hussein, his former business partner.
After the coup attempt Al-Jibouri relocated to Syria. Hussein killed almost 100 members of Juburi’s family in retaliation including his brother and brother-in-law.
He founded the Iraqi Homeland Party in Syria and published a newspaper called the “Other Direction”. He is a relative of the Iraqi Ambassador to Tunisia, Hamid al-Jabouri, who defected and sought political asylum in Britain in 1993.
He was a member of the Follow-Up and Arrangement Committee grouping of Iraqi exiles.
During the Invasion of Iraq, Juburi took control of the city of Mosul with the aid of Kurdish peshmerga, and took over a former palace owned by Ali Hassan al-Majid. Juburi and KDP peshmerga forces had been the first to enter Mosul, and Juburi had played a key role in convincing the Commanders of the Iraqi Army’s V Corps to surrender, instead of fighting the American and KDP forces. He proceeded to appoint himself Governor, apparently with the support of Barzani new balance sneakers. Following his self appointment a popular uprising brought locals to the street. Locals were apprently angry at Juburi over a mixture of old allegations that he had stolen money from Saddam and newer allegations that he was involved in looting in Mosul following the takeover. American troops then intervened

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, ending Juburi’s Governorship in order to end the tension. He was recognised as a powerbroker during the selection of the first Mosul City Council in May 2003
His party, the Reconciliation and Liberation Bloc stood in the Iraqi legislative election of January 2005 where it won one seat. In the subsequent December elections, it increased its representation three seats. Juburi said they supported the Iraqi insurgency, although opposed suicide bombings, and called for the Multinational Force in Iraq to be replaced by United Nations-led peacekeepers.
In 2005 al-Jibouri was backed by the Sunni Arab dialogue council as their candidate for speaker of the Iraqi National Assembly Karen Millen Online 2016, but he was vetoed by the United Iraqi Alliance due to his personal links with Uday Hussein.
Jabouri was among the minority of Sunni Arabs who supported the constitution of Iraq in the referendum.
Jabouri was indicted in December 2005 with the theft of millions of dollars of government money intended to protect oil pipelines near Kirkuk against attack. The money had been given to him in 2004. He was suspected of diverting the money towards the Iraqi insurgency. Following the indictment he fled to Syria.
In exile he founded Al-Zawraa TV, a twenty-four-hour satellite channel broadcast by the Arabsat satellite to an area that included the Middle East and North Africa. The station’s transmissions on the Egyptian-owned Nilesat satellite network ceased in February 2007. Al Zawraa has broadcast songs eulogising Iraqi victims of “the American occupiers”, has described the Iraqi insurgency as “freedom fighters” and the Shi’ite leader Muqtada al-Sadr as a “gangster”
In an interview following the execution of the former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein he described Hussein as a brave martyr, and said the ones who killed him were like those who killed the second Caliph of Islam, Umar
In 2009 he offered on TV to buy weapons to give to the resistance to fight the US-led Multi-National Force – Iraq. He said he wanted to obtain medium range missiles so they could attack and leave before the forces traced the site.
In 2010 he criticised Gulf governments and TV companies for broadcasting anti-Shiite statements from an Egyptian cleric, Muhammed al-Zoghbi. Zoghbi had called for Shiites to be purged from Muslim countries and called on Allah to inflict them with cancer and freeze the blood in their veins. Jabouri called the cleric a liar and a lunatic and called for him to be banned from TV.
During the 2011 Libyan civil war bogner sale, he went on TV to say he supported Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, saying protests should focus on pro-American governments. His channel Arrai TV has been used by overseas Libyans to defend the Gaddafi regime and denounce the replacement government and to keep morale up of those who have fled Libya since the revolution. The channel has aired a number of audio messages from Gaddafi and his aides since they fled Tripoli. Juburi has justified his support for Gaddafi, and Gaddafi loyalists, by arguing that that the fight in Libya is now between native Libyan’s and foreign invaders. Juburi has instead suggested that Gaddafi loyalists adopt the tactics and strategy of the insurgents in Iraq.
In an interview with The Guardian Middle East editor Martin Chulov, Misha’an admitted that despite being a senior member of a parliamentary committee investigating official corruption, he was himself highly corrupt. “There is no solution,” he said. “Everybody is corrupt, from the top of society to the bottom. Everyone. Including me.”, “At least I am honest about it,” he shrugged. “I was offered $5m by someone to stop investigating him. I took it, and continued prosecuting him anyway.”

Cecilia Wikström

Cecilia Karin Maria Wikström, née Sundström, originally Nodbjörk (born 17 October 1965 in Svanstein, Övertorneå Municipality, Norrbotten County) is a Swedish Liberal People’s Party politician. Wikström is currently a member of the European Parliament. She is also a priest in the Church of Sweden and the author of several books. She was married to former Swedish Minister for Education Jan-Erik Wikström, father of Jeppe Wikström, from 1995 to 2010, and before that to the Swedish priest Björn Bolin.
Cecilia Wikström got her Bachelor of Theology at the Department of Theology at Uppsala University in 1993. She has had various positions in the Church of Sweden, such as parish minister, university chaplain, prison chaplain, and canon of the Uppsala Cathedral.

Between 2002 and 2009, Wikström was a member of the Swedish Parliament for the Liberal People’s Party. She was Deputy Chairman of the Committee on Cultural Affairs and substitute member of the Committee on Foreign Affairs. Wikström has been very engaged in questions relating to freedom of expression, in Sweden as well as in other countries.
In 2009 Wikström ran for the elections to the European Parliament on June 7

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. She was the third name on the Swedish Liberal People’s Party list and was elected to represent the party in the European Parliament. Hence, she left her post in the Swedish Parliament in July 2009.
Wikström is a Member of the European Parliament since 2009

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. She is a member of the European Parliament group Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE).
In the European Parliament, Cecilia Wikström was from 2009 to 2014 a full member of the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE) and the Committee on Legal Affairs (JURI), where she also is the coordinator of the ALDE group. In 2012, she was appointed into the Advisory Committee of the European Parliament, a consultative ethics committee consisting of five senior MEPs who act as advisors to other colleagues on ethical issues.
Wikström is also vice-chair of the Parliament’s intergroup for disabled people.
In spring 2013, Wikström was appointed to represent the Alde-group in the delegation that will negotiate a new agreement between the European Parliament and other institutions on how the European Parliament should have access to classified documents related to the common policy of security and foreign affairs.
She is substitute member of the Delegation to the EU-Moldova Parliamentary Cooperation Committee, the Delegation to the ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly and the Delegation to the Euronest Parliamentary Assembly.
In the present legislature (2014-2019) Wikström is a full member of Conference of Committee Chairs and of the Committee of Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE) and a substitute member of the Committee of Legal Affairs (JURI). On 7 July 2014

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, she was elected a Chairwoman of the Committee for Petitions. She is also a member of the European Parliament Intergroup on the Western Sahara and the European Parliament Intergroup on LGBT Rights.
Wikström has written and published a published several books. In 2004 she published När livet går sönder, a book about crisis management. Her second book I tillitens tecken was published in 2006. She has also held various positions in national and regional boards, such as the Swedish UNESCO Board

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, the Police County Board and Liberal Women group in Uppsala County. Since 2001 she is the owner and executive Director of Wikström Consulting LTD.

Pictons

Les Pictons (Pictones) ou Pictaves constituent un peuple de la Gaule. Selon les sources[Qui ?] et les époques ils peuvent être désignés sous le nom de Pictes[réf. nécessaire]. Leur nom dérive du celte pict-, qui signifie « rusé ».

Les limites de ce territoire, agrandi grâce à la collaboration avec Jules César contre les peuplades gauloises résistantes armoricaines (dont faisait partie le sud de la Loire-Atlantique actuelle) sont déductibles à partir de trois éléments :
À partir de ces éléments, on peut établir que le territoire picton s’étendait, avant la conquête romaine, avec certitude sur les départements actuels de la Vienne et des Deux-Sèvres, c’est-à-dire le Haut-Poitou, et le sud de la Vendée. Il est probable, mais non certain que la Vendée n’en faisait pas partie (probablement territoire des Ambilatres). L’extension de leur territoire jusqu’à la Loire sur tout son cours inférieur avant la conquête romaine est une hypothèse à peu près abandonnée. En tout cas, après la Conquête, les trois départements forment un ensemble qui dure jusqu’à la Révolution française, soit plus de dix-huit siècles.
Le nom de l’oppidum des Pictons était Lemonum, nom celtique de l’actuelle Poitiers, signifiant « l’Ormeraie ». Ce terme proviendrait du gaulois Lemo-, orme, qui se compare exactement avec l’irlandais lem, orme, avec une finale latinisée. Puis elle a pris le nom du peuple dont elle était la civitas (cité) : Civitas Pictaviensis, selon un processus bien connu en Gaule romaine, c’est-à-dire « Poitiers ». Lemonum était située sur un vaste promontoire au confluent du Clain et de la Boivre.
Juste avant la conquête romaine, il apparait que l’État picton est organisé autour de l’ancien système celtique royal, et non d’un vergobret.[réf. nécessaire]
Plusieurs noms des tribus voisines des Pictons nous sont arrivés, comme les Ambiliates ou Ambilatres (Vendée actuelle) et les Agnutes ou Anagnutes.
Duratios était roi des Pictons lors de la conquête, mais son pouvoir semblait limité par celui des chefs de guerre pictons.[réf. nécessaire]
Voir aussi religion gauloise, druidisme.
Le Poitou celte connut une circulation monétaire originale à partir de la fin du IIe siècle av. J.-C. Il s’agit de monnaies d’electrum[réf. nécessaire]. Comme la plupart des monnaies gauloises crampons de football de puma pas cher, il est inspiré du statère macédonien, et des monnaies grecques de la colonie d’Empuries en Catalogne.
Les monnaies pictonnes possèdent un type armoricain, dont le revers possède un caractère original : une main ouverte se trouve sous le cheval androcéphale courant. On retrouve encore des monnaies d’argent et de bronze.
Ces motifs inspirèrent directement le monnayage des Namnètes[réf. nécessaire], tant l’influence politique, ainsi que la stabilité économique pictonne, étaient importants sur cette région de la Loire[réf maillots de foot. nécessaire].
On retrouve abondamment ces monnaies dans la Vienne et les Deux-Sèvres, et en faible quantité en Vendée.
Il existe également au Ier siècle av. J.-C. une série d’argent, ornée d’un cavalier ailé qui saute une fleur de type lys, proche du monnayage des Bituriges. Son caractère proprement picton est cependant moins certain.
Les Pictons faisaient partie des peuples qui pouvaient se sentir menacés par la migration des Helvètes vers le territoire des Santons, dans le cas où elle se serait effectuée par le nord du Massif central. Ils avaient donc tout intérêt à l’intervention de Jules César.
Tout comme les Santons, ils fournirent une flotte à César en 56 av. J.-C. Leur chef Duratios resta fidèle à César lors de l’insurrection de 52 av. J.-C. Cependant, Vercingétorix demanda des renforts à tous les peuples de la Gaule, dont 8000 hommes aux Pictons, qui lui furent envoyés. Le peuple picton était donc partagé. Le contingent favorable à Vercingétorix rejoignit le chef des Andes Dumnacos à Angers, qui se dirigea alors vers Lemonum pour y assiéger Duratios. Celui-ci envoya un courrier au légat romain Caius Caninius Rebilus, qui vint depuis le territoire des Rutènes lui apporter du soutien. Mais n’ayant que des troupes de peu de valeur, il se construisit un camp retranché afin de résister à Dumnacos. Celui-ci l’assaillit durant plusieurs jours sans réussir à le pénétrer.
Dumnacos prit la fuite en apprenant que le légat Caius Fabius, qui obtenait allégeance des peuples entre Beauvais et Tours, se portait au secours de Caninius.
Étant resté fidèle en majorité à César, la cité pictonne, c’est-à-dire la subdivision administrative romaine qui fut attribuée aux Pictons lors de l’organisation de la Gaule en provinces romaines entre 16 av. J.-C. et 13 av robe sandro. J.-C., fut probablement augmentée du territoire des Ambilatres et des Anagnutes (probablement la Vendée).
La paix romaine profita à la cité des Pictons, notamment par de nombreuses constructions urbaines (voir Histoire de Poitiers), il est toutefois difficile de se prononcer sur le degré de romanisation du peuple picton. Des survivances de l’époque gauloise sont attestées, ainsi, comme dans de nombreux autres endroits des Gaule sortie de chemise de football adidas, au milieu du IIe siècle, les bornes milliaires indiquent les distances en lieues gauloises, et non en milles romains. En revanche, il est certain qu’à cette époque l’aristocratie de la cité était profondément romanisée et fortement intégrée à la classe dirigeante de l’Empire romain : Marcus Sedatius Severianus originaire de Poitiers fit en effet une belle carrière de sénateur romain qui le porta au consulat en 153. Les découvertes archéologiques ont révélé la richesse de la Poitiers romaine et son insertion dans l’économie impériale, source commerciale, selon Gilbert-Charles Picard de la réussite des notables pictons. Il est possible que Poitiers ait été la capitale de la province romaine d’Aquitaine. Selon G. Nicolini des traces d’incendie marquent une rupture dans l’histoire de la ville dans le troisième quart du deuxième siècle, incendies et ruptures que G.-Ch. Picard expliquait par des troubles et des révoltes.
En 237, on trouve la première mention du changement progressif du nom de Limonum en Poitiers.
La prospérité de la cité des Pictons se lit aussi dans les agglomérations qui se sont développées autour de sanctuaires ruraux, comme Sanxay, et les Tours Mirandes à Vendeuvre dans les deux premiers siècles de l’ère chrétienne. D’autres agglomérations se sont encore développées à partir du IIIe siècle, comme le Vieux-Poitiers à Naintré, commune qui a également livré deux tombeaux exceptionnels (les Dames de Naintré). Ce bourg ne disparaît qu’avec les invasions normandes du IXe siècle. Au Ier siècle ap. J.-C., le géographe Strabon mentionne également les deux principales villes pictonnes de l’époque : Lemonum (Poitiers) et Ratiatum (Rezé). Ce port servait au commerce avec les îles Britanniques[réf. nécessaire].
Après que Constantin Ier avait fait du christianisme une religion licite et protégée, celui-ci se répand de plus en plus rapidement. Saint Hilaire est le premier évêque assuré de Poitiers vers 350. Il accueille le futur saint Martin de Tours, qui fonde à Ligugé le plus ancien monastère de Gaule, encore en activité aujourd’hui.
Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

William F. Buckley, Jr.

William Frank Buckley Jr. (* 24. November 1925 in New York City; † 27. Februar 2008 in Stamford, Connecticut) war ein konservativer amerikanischer Autor, Journalist und Kommentator.

William F. Buckley jr. wurde am 24. November 1925 in Manhattan als das sechste von zehn Kindern von Aloise Steiner Buckley und William Frank Buckley geboren. William jr. wuchs in einem wohlhabenden, von Konservativismus und Katholizismus geprägten Elternhaus auf. Sein Vater hatte sein Vermögen durch Ölgeschäfte in Mexiko und Venezuela gemacht 2016 fußballschuh. Buckley jr. erhielt seine Erziehung zunächst von Privatlehrern auf Great Elm, dem Landsitz der Familie in Sharon, Connecticut. Im Alter von 14 wechselte er auf die Millbrook School im Bundesstaat New York. Nach seinem Abschluss in Millbrook studierte er für ein halbes Jahr Spanisch an der Universität von Mexiko und diente anschließend ab 1944 in der U.S. Army, die er 1946 im Range eines Second Lieutenant verließ. Es folgte ein Studium der Politikwissenschaft, Volkswirtschaftslehre und Geschichte in Yale. Er wurde zum Vorsitzenden der Yale Daily News gewählt und war Mitglied der prestigeträchtigen Studentenverbindung Skull and Bones.
Nach seinem Studium arbeitete Buckley ein Jahr lang für die CIA in Mexiko, wo sein Vorgesetzter E. Howard Hunt war, der später in die Watergate-Affäre involviert sein sollte. 1951 veröffentlichte Buckley sein erstes Buch, God and Man at Yale: The Superstitions of ‚Academic Freedom‘. Darin kritisierte er die Yale University, von der er im Jahr zuvor cum laude spondiert wurde. Er warf ihr vor, von ihrer ursprünglichen Aufgabe als christliche Hochschule abgekommen zu sein 2016 fußball trikots online. Yale betreibe anti-religiöse, anti-kapitalistische und kollektivistische Indoktrination. Das Buch brachte ihm nationale Aufmerksamkeit, nicht zuletzt, weil er seinem Verlag, Regnery, 10.000 Dollar für eine Werbekampagne gegeben hatte.
Nach seinem Ausscheiden aus der CIA arbeitete Buckley zunächst für kurze Zeit für die Zeitschrift American Mercury und anschließend als freier Schriftsteller und Lehrbeauftragter. Zusammen mit seinem Schwager L. Brent Bozell veröffentlichte er 1954 sein zweites Buch, McCarthy and His Enemies, in dem er vehement die antikommunistische Kampagne Joseph McCarthys verteidigte.
1955 gründete Buckley die einflussreiche konservative politische Zeitschrift National Review, nachdem er von seinem Vater 100.000 Dollar und weitere 290.000 Dollar von anderen Geldgebern erhalten hatte. Seine öffentliche Präsenz wurde verstärkt durch seine preisgekrönte Fernsehtalkshow Firing Line, die von 1966 bis 1999 lief und die am längsten laufende Talkshow im amerikanischen Fernsehen war.
Obwohl ein zutiefst politischer Mensch, hatte er kaum politische Ämter inne Bogner Jacken Sale. 1965 kandidierte er für das Amt des New Yorker Bürgermeisters, eine Wahl, die er mit nur 13,4 Prozent gegen John Lindsay verlor. Zwischen 1969 und 1972 wurde er von Präsident Nixon zur National Advisory Commission on Information berufen und 1973 war er Mitglied der U.S. Delegation bei den Vereinten Nationen.
Buckley war mit Patricia Aldyen Austin, geborene Taylor, verheiratet, die am 15. April 2007 starb. Er hat einen Sohn, Christopher, der ebenfalls Schriftsteller ist. Buckley starb an den Folgen von Zuckerkrankheit und Lungenemphysem. Seinen Nachlass hat er der Yale Universität vermacht.
Große Publizität erreichte auch Buckleys langjährige Fehde mit dem linksgerichteten Schriftsteller Gore Vidal, die zur Zeit der Demokratischen Nationalversammlung 1968 begann und das Wort „Kryptofaschismus“ im politischen Diskurs etablierte.
Buckley beschrieb sich selbst als libertär. In Druck und Bildmedien war er für sein distinktives Auftreten bekannt Wellensteyn Sale 2016. Er kam aus reichem Hause, wurde in einem englischen Internat erzogen und pflegte die Kultur eines Gentleman.
Buckleys eigentliche Bedeutung liegt in der Popularisierung konservativer Gedanken in einer liberalen Epoche amerikanischer Politik. In einem Land, das vom Roosevelt’schen New Deal geprägt war, galt die Präsidentschaftskampagne des Jahres 1964, in der Senator Barry Goldwater kandidierte, als Anfang des Mitspracherechtes der Konservativen in Amerika. Als Ronald Reagan im Jahr 1980 Präsident wurde, galt der Sieg als Errungenschaft eben der Bewegung, die mit Goldwater (und Buckley) begonnen hat. Buckley war ein profilierter intellektueller Repräsentant konservativer Ideologie.
Buckleys Gedanken kamen aus der Schule von Max Eastman, Milton Friedman und Russell Kirk. Dabei war die betonte Kritik am Kommunismus ein ideologisches Grundprinzip, nach dem Vorbild des Autors Whittaker Chambers. Buckley war überzeugter Katholik und diente als Brückengestalt zwischen dem Katholizismus und evangelikalen Gruppierungen; diese Allianz nahm stetig zu, obwohl es vor dem Zweiten Weltkrieg keinerlei Dialog gab.
Insgesamt schrieb Buckley mehr als 50 Bücher, darunter waren auch autobiographische Schriften über seine Segelleidenschaft und ebenso eine Reihe von Spionage-Romanen.

Aristotle Onassis

Aristotle Socrates Onassis (Greek: Αριστοτέλης Ωνάσης, Aristotelis Onasis; 15 January 1906 – 15 March 1975), commonly called Ari or Aristo Onassis, was a shipping magnate and businessman of Greek and Argentine citizenship. Onassis amassed the world’s largest privately owned shipping fleet and was one of the world’s richest and most famous men. He was known for his business success, his great wealth and also his personal life, including his marriage to Athina Livanos, daughter of shipping tycoon Stavros G

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. Livanos, his affair with the opera singer Maria Callas and his marriage in 1968 to Jacqueline Kennedy, the widow of the American president John F. Kennedy.
Onassis was born in Smyrna and fled the city with his family to Greece in 1922 in the wake of the Greco-Turkish War. Onassis moved to Argentina in 1923 and established himself as a tobacco trader and later a shipping owner during the Second World War. Moving to Monaco, Onassis rivaled Prince Rainer III for economic control of the country through his ownership of SBM and in the mid 1950s sought to secure an oil shipping arrangement with Saudi Arabia and engaged in whaling expeditions. In the 1960s Onassis attempted to establish a large investment contract, Project Omega, with the Greek military junta, and sold Olympic Airways which he had founded in 1957. Onassis was greatly affected by the death of his 24-year-old son, Alexander, in a plane crash in 1973, and died less than two years later.

Onassis was born in Karatass, a suburb of the port city of Smyrna (now İzmir, Turkey) in Anatolia. His parents were Socrates and Penelope Dologu. Onassis had one full-sister, Artemis, and two half-sisters, Kalliroi and Merope, by his father’s second marriage following Penelope’s death. Onassis became a successful shipping entrepreneur and was able to send his children to prestigious schools. When Aristotle Onassis graduated from the local Evangelical Greek School at the age of 16, he spoke four languages: Greek (his native language), Turkish, Spanish, and English.
Smyrna was briefly administered by Greece (1919–1922) in the aftermath of the Allied victory in World War I, but then Smyrna was re-taken by Turkey during the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22). The Onassis family’s substantial property holdings were lost, causing them to become refugees fleeing to Greece after the Great Fire of Smyrna in 1922. During this period, Aristotle Onassis lost three uncles, an aunt and her husband Chrysostomos Konialidis and their daughter, who were burned to death in a church in Thyatira where 500 Christians were seeking shelter from the Great Fire of Smyrna.
In 1923, at the age of seventeen, Aristotle Onassis left for Buenos Aires, Argentina, by Nansen passport, and got his first job as a telephone operator, with the British United River Plate Telephone Company The Kooples Outlet. He went into business for himself and made a fortune importing tobacco to Argentina. Eventually he relocated to New York where he built up his shipping businesses.
Onassis built up a fleet of freighters and tankers that eventually exceeded seventy vessels. Onassis’s fleet had Panamanian flags and sailed tax-free while operating at low cost. Because of this, Onassis could turn a profit in every transaction, even though he charged one of the lowest prices in the merchant navy market. Onassis made large profits when the big oil companies like Mobil, Socony, and Texaco signed long-term contracts at fixed prices with him for the use of his fleet, while having trouble managing their own fleets, which operated under US flags and thus at high cost.
Onassis arrived in the Mediterranean principality of Monaco in 1953 and began to purchase the shares of Monaco’s Société des bains de mer de Monaco (SBM) via the use of front companies in the tax haven of Panama, and took control of the organisation in the summer of that year. Onassis moved his headquarters into the Old Sporting Club on Monaco’s Avenue d’Ostende shortly after taking control of the SBM. The SBM was a significant owner of property in Monaco, its assets included the Monte Carlo casino, the Monaco Yacht Club, the Hotel de Paris and a third of the country’s acreage. Onassis’s takeover of the SBM was initially welcomed by Monaco’s ruler, Prince Rainier III as the country required investment, but Onassis and Rainier’s relationship had deteriorated by 1962 in the wake of the boycott of Monaco by the French President, Charles de Gaulle.
Onassis and Rainier had differing visions for Monaco. Onassis wished the country to remain a resort for an exclusive clientele, but Rainier wished to build hotels and attract a greater number of tourists. Monaco had become less attractive as a tax haven in the wake of France’s actions, and Rainier urged Onassis to invest in the construction of hotels. Onassis was reluctant to invest in hotels without a guarantee from Rainier that no other competing hotel development would be permitted, but promised to build two hotels and an apartment block. Unwilling to give Onassis his guarantee, Rainier used his veto to cancel the entire hotel project, and publicly attacked SBM for their ‘bad faith’ on television, implicitly criticising Onassis. Rainier and Onassis remained at odds over the direction of the company for several years and in June 1966 Rainier approved a plan to create 600,000 new shares in SBM to be permanently held by the state, which reducing Onassis’s stake from 52% to under a third. In the Supreme Court of Monaco the share creation was challenged by Onassis who claimed that it was unconstitutional, but the court found against him in March 1967. Following the ruling Onassis sold his holdings in SBM to the state of Monaco for $9.5 million ($67.4 million as of 2016), and left the country. According to Frank Brady in Onassis an Extravagant life Onassis words about the issue were: “We were gypped.”
During the oil boom of the 1950s Onassis was in final discussions with the King of Saudi Arabia for securing a tanker transport deal. Since the Arabian-American Oil Co. (Currently, ARAMCO) had a monopoly on Saudi oil by a concession agreement, the US government was alarmed by the tanker deal. By 1954, a specific U.S. policy for Saudi Arabia, in addition to strengthening the US “special position,” was to take “all appropriate measures to bring about the cancellation” of an agreement between the Saudi government and Aristotle Onassis to transport Saudi oil on his tankers and “in any case, to make the agreement ineffective”. [Doc. 128] The arrangement would have ended monopoly control of Saudi Arabia’s oil by American oil companies, but was forestalled by the US government.
For this reason he became a target of the US government and in 1954, the FBI investigated Onassis for fraud against the U.S. government. He was charged with violating the citizenship provision of the shipping laws which require that all ships displaying the U.S. flag be owned by U.S. citizens. Onassis entered a guilty plea and paid $7 million.
Between 1950 and 1956, Onassis had success whaling off the Peruvian coast. His first expedition made a net profit of US$4.5 million. That business ended when The Norwegian Whaling Gazette made accusations based on sailors’ testimonials, such as one given by Bruno Schalaghecke who worked on the factory ship Olympic Challenger: “Pieces of fresh meat from the 124 whales we killed yesterday still remains on the deck. Among them all, just one could be considered adult. All animals that pass within the range of the harpoon are killed in cold blood.” The venture came to an end after the business was sold to Kyokuyo Hogei Kaisha Whaling Company, one of the biggest Japanese whaling companies, for $8.5 million. Norwegian authorities suspected the involvement of Hjalmar Schacht in Onassis’s whaling enterprises. Schacht had previously been connected with Onassis’s Saudi Arabian deals.
In 1956, Greek airlines in general faced economic difficulties, whereby companies like TAE were affected by strikes and cash shortage. The Greek government decided to give this and other companies to the private sector, and, on July 30, 1956, Aristotle Onassis signed a contract granting him the operational rights to the Greek air transport industry. When Onassis heard during the negotiations that he would not be able to use the five Olympic rings in his logo due to copyright issues, he simply decided to add a sixth ring.
Operation effectively started in 1957, with one DC-4, two DC-6s and 13 DC-3s. Each following year saw 244,000 passengers transported. The agreement lasted until December 10, 1974, when a number of factors (namely, a series of strikes, shortage of passengers, fuel price increase, and a law from the new Greek government forbidding Olympic Airways to fire employees) led Onassis to terminate his contract.
Following this event, Paul Ionnidis, a high-ranking director from Olympic Airways, said the following of Onassis: “Deep down, [he] did not want to relinquish Olympic Airways. He found it flattering to own an airline. It was something in which he took deep pride. It was his accomplishment. He was married to the sea, but Olympic was his mistress. We used to say that he would spend all the money he made at sea with his mistress in the sky.”
Onassis’s time at the head of Olympic Airways is known as a golden era, due to investments he made in training and the acquisition of cutting-edge technology. For example, in 1959, he signed a deal with De Havilland to buy four Comet 4B jets. Onassis was also renowned for his attention to service quality, which led him to buy gold-plated utensils and candles for the dining service of the first-class section.
During 1974 Cheongsam Dress, the last year of Onassis’s involvement with the company, Olympic Airways transported 2.5 million passengers and had a work force of 7,356 persons. At the time, his ownership of Olympic Airways distinguished Onassis as one of only two men in the world to own a private airline, the other being Howard Hughes of TWA
Onassis was involved in the privatization of the Greek national airline and founded the privatized Olympic Airways (today Olympic Air) in 1957.
Stocks accounted for one-third of his capital, held in oil companies in the USA, the Middle East, and Venezuela. He also owned additional shares that secured his control of 95 multinational businesses on five continents. He owned gold-processing plants in Argentina and Uruguay and a large share in an airline in Latin America and $4 million worth of investments in Brazil. Also, he owned companies like Olympic Maritime and Olympic Tourist; a chemical company in Persia; apartments in Paris, London, Monte Carlo, Athens, and Acapulco; a castle in South France; the Olympic Tower (a 52-storey high-rise in Manhattan); another building in Sutton Place; Olympic Airways and Air Navigation; the island of Skorpios; the 325 ft (99.06 m) luxury yacht Christina O and, finally, deposit accounts and accounts in treasuries in 217 banks in the whole world.
In October 1968, amidst the Greek military junta and shortly after his marriage to Jacqueline Kennedy, Onassis announced the launch of Project Omega, a $400 million investment program that aimed to build considerable industrial infrastructure in Greece including an oil refinery and aluminum smelter. Onassis had cultivated the Prime Minister of Greece, Colonel George Papadopoulos, for his assistance with the scheme, loaning Papadopoulos the use of his villa and buying dresses for his wife. The project was financially supported by the American bank First National City, and Onassis’s American financial supporters eventually tired of the unfavourable terms demanded by him. The project was heavily criticized by people such as Helen Vlachos, a journalist from Athens. Another Greek Colonel, Nikolaos Makarezos, preferred a deal offered by Onassis’s rival, Stavros Niarchos, and the project was eventually split between them. The failure was due partly to opposition from influential people within the military junta, such as Ioannis-Orlandos Rodinos, Deputy Minister of Economic Coordination, who opposed Onassis’s offers in preference to Niarchos.
Onassis married Athina Livanos, daughter of shipping magnate Stavros G. Livanos and Arietta Zafrikakis, on 28 December 1946. Livanos was aged 17 at the time of their marriage; Onassis was 40. Onassis and Livanos had two children, both born in New York City: a son, Alexander (30 April 1948 – 23 January 1973), and a daughter Christina (11 December 1950 – 19 November 1988). Onassis named his legendary super-yacht after his daughter. To Onassis his marriage to Athina was more than the fulfillment of his ambitions. He also felt that the marriage dealt a blow to his father-in-law and the old-money Greek traditionalists who held Onassis in very low esteem. The couple had become largely separated by the mid-1950s, with the end of the marriage coming after Livanos found Onassis in bed with a friend of hers at their home in Cap d’Antibes, the Chateau de la Croë. The house was then acquired by Onassis’s brother-in-law and business rival Stavros Niarchos, who bought it for his wife, Eugenia Livanos, Athina’s sister. Onassis and Livanos divorced in June 1960 during Onassis’s well publicised affair with Maria Callas.
Onassis and opera prima donna Maria Callas embarked on an affair despite the fact that they were both married. They met in 1957 during a party in Venice promoted by Elsa Maxwell. After this first encounter, Onassis commented to Spyros Skouras: “There [was] just a natural curiosity; after all, we were the most famous Greeks alive in the world.” Callas and Onassis both divorced their spouses but did not marry each other although their relationship continued for many years.
Onassis ended his relationship with Callas to marry Jacqueline Kennedy, widow of U.S. President John F. Kennedy. They married on 20 October 1968 on Onassis’s privately owned Greek island, Skorpios.
According to biographer Peter Evans, Onassis offered Mrs. Kennedy US$3 million to replace her Kennedy trust fund, which she would lose because she was remarrying.[citation needed] After Onassis’s death, she would receive a settlement of US$26 million; US$150,000 each year for the rest of her life. The whole marital contract was discussed with Ted Kennedy and later reviewed by André Meyer, her financial consultant.
Onassis’s daughter Christina made clear that she disliked Jacqueline Kennedy, and after Alexander’s death, she convinced Aristotle that Jacqueline had some kind of curse due to John and Robert Kennedy’s murders.
During his marriage to Jackie, the couple inhabited six different residences: her 15-room Fifth Ave. apartment in New York City, her horse farm in New Jersey, his Ave. Foch apartment in Paris, his house in Athens, on Skorpios, his private island in Greece, and his yacht Christina O.
Onassis died at age 69 karen millen sale, on 15 March 1975 at the American Hospital of Paris in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, of respiratory failure, a complication of the myasthenia gravis from which he had been suffering during the last years of his life. Onassis was buried on his island of Skorpios in Greece, alongside his son, Alexander. Onassis’s will established a charitable foundation in memory of his son, named the Alexander S. Onassis Public Benefit Foundation, based in the tax haven of Vaduz in Liechtenstein, and headquartered in Athens. The foundation received 45% of Onassis’s estate, which would have been left to his son, with the 55% remainder left to his daughter, Christina. The foundation consists of two parts; a business foundation which runs various businesses including shipping, and a public benefit foundation which is the sole recipient of the business foundation. The public benefit foundation funds the worldwide promotion of Greek culture, funds the Onassis International Prizes for achievement in various fields, and the funding of scholarships for Greek university students.
Jackie Kennedy Onassis also received her share of the estate, settling for a reported $10 million ($26 million according to other sources), which was negotiated by her brother-in-law Ted Kennedy. This amount would reportedly grow to several hundred million under the financial stewardship of her companion Maurice Tempelsman. Christina’s share has since passed to her only child Athina, at the time making Athina one of the wealthiest women in the world.

Bargoed railway station

Coordinates: 51°41′34″N 3°13′48″W / 51.6928°N 3 hermes birkin.2299°W / 51

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Bargoed railway station serves the town of Bargoed in the county borough of Caerphilly, South Wales. It is a stop on the Rhymney branch of the Valley Lines network. The station, which is the northernmost on the double-track section of the branch 2016 Bogner Ski Jackets, has recently seen the reinstatement of a second platform (although it did at one time have three).

The station was opened on 31 March 1858 by the Rhymney Railway and was once a busy junction, serving lines to Newport (via Bedwas) and Brecon (the Brecon and Merthyr Tydfil Junction Railway) as well as the current route, but the latter pair were both closed to passengers on 31 December 1962 and completely in 1963/5. The junction site and trackbed of the old Brecon line is still visible north of the station.
In 1905 it was renamed Bargoed and Aber Bargoed reverting to its original name in 1924 There was another similarly-name station, Aber Bargoed, opened by the Brecon & Merthyr Junction Railway & located on the now defunct Newport line south of Bargoed South Junction sacs de mode.
On Mondays to Saturdays there are departures every 15 minutes southbound to Cardiff Central and Penarth, with an hourly service in the evenings. Sunday trains run every two hours and serve Barry Island rather than Penarth.
Northbound there is an hourly service to Rhymney on Mondays to Saturdays with a two-hourly Sunday service. The ongoing re-signalling scheme on the Valley Lines network has seen the signal box here closed and a new passing loop constructed at Tir-Phil. The plan for a half-hourly service through to/from Rhymney was due to be implemented at the December 2013 timetable change, but this has been postponed until at least December 2014 due to there being insufficient rolling stock available.
UK railway stations: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

SS Orteric (1910)

The SS Orteric is a Clyde-built British cargo ship that on 13 April 1911 brought 960 Spanish and 565 Portuguese immigrants to Hawaii to work on the sugar plantations. The ship was subsequently torpedoed and sunk in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea by a German U-boat during the First World War.

The SS Orteric was built by Russell & Company of Port Glasgow in the Firth of Clyde shipyards as a 6,535 gross tons cargo ship that was 460 feet (140.2 m) long with a beam of 57 feet (17.4 m), and a triple expansion engine built by Rankin and Blackmore of Greenock that gave her a cruising speed of 13 knots

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. The ship was launched on 19 December 1910 by owner Andrew Weir of Glasgow for cargo and passenger service in his various transport companies, including the Bank Line, Inver Transport & Trading Co.
The Orteric is historically significant because on one of her early voyages in 1911 she brought 960 Spanish and 565 Portuguese immigrants to Hawaii to work as contract labor in the sugar cane plantations. This made her the last ship to participate in the Portuguese immigration to Hawaii of 1878-1911, and the second ship to participate in the Spanish immigration that followed. The Spanish immigrants, who were mostly from the area of Seville, boarded the ship at Gibraltar

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, and the Portuguese boarded at Oporto and Lisbon, Portugal. They left Gibraltar on 24 February 1911 and arrived on 12 April 1911 in Hawaii after 48 days at sea. Hawaiian newspapers reported that the two groups argued and fought with each other during the long voyage, “so much so that they had to be separated. The women herve leger sale. . . went as far as hair pulling.” There was also an outbreak of measles during the voyage that resulted in 58 deaths, most of them children.
The Orteric made several voyages across the Atlantic until she was torpedoed and sunk by German U-boat SM U-39 on 9 December 1915 in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea about 140 miles southeast of the island of Gavdos. The ship was hauling 10,000 tons of sodium nitrate from Antofagasta, Chile to Alexandria coast sale, Egypt when the submarine was spotted. The captain of the Orteric tried evasive maneuvers, but the U-boat was commanded by Captain Walter Forstmann, one of the most skillful and deadliest U-boat commanders of the war. When it became evident that escape was impossible, a white flag of surrender was hoisted over the Orteric, but the U-boat fired torpedoes anyway, sinking the ship, and killing two Chinese sailors on board. Captain Forstmann subsequently detained the lifeboat with the captain of the Orteric long enough to force the latter to sign a German document, then set him adrift. A few hours later three lifeboats with the survivors of the Orteric were rescued by a British hospital ship.

Gallo family

The Gallo family is an American wine family. The father, Joseph Gallo, Sr. grew grapes, and died in a murder suicide when he shot his wife and then took his own life tory burch bags.
His two sons started E. & J. Gallo Winery, which today is the largest exporter of California wines. The winery was founded by brothers Ernest and Julio Gallo. A third brother, Joseph, was a rancher, cheese maker, and founder of Joseph Gallo Farms.

Julio Gallo (March 21, 1910 – May 2, 1993) is one of the founders of the E & J Gallo Winery juicy couture outlet sale, along with his brother Ernest Gallo. Julio Gallo was married to Aileen Gallo (1913–1999).
Ernest Gallo (March 18, 1909 – March 6, 2007) was the American co-founder of the E & J Gallo Winery. He was ranked 297th on the 2006 Forbes 400 list of billionaires bogner outlet 2016.
After the death of his parents, Ernest and brother Julio, along with their wives Amelia (1910–1993) and Aileen, raised their thirteen-year-old little brother Joseph. In 1986, the brothers sued Joseph for using the Gallo name on his cheese labels. The brothers won and their relationship with Joseph was forever strained.
Ernest Gallo was married for sixty-two years to Amelia Franzia Gallo until she died on December 22, 1993. The couple had two sons: David, who died in 1997, and Joseph. His younger brother, Joseph Gallo, died on February 17, 2007 at age eighty-seven. Weeks later, on March 6, 2007, Ernest Gallo died at his home in Modesto, California, twelve days shy of his 98th birthday.
Gallo was profiled by PBS’s Frontline: So you want to buy a president? series herve leger online. He is also known to have said, regarding the wine industry:
“We don’t want most of the business. We want it all.
Joseph Edward Gallo (September 11, 1919 – February 17, 2007) was a prominent California rancher. He founded one of the largest family-owned dairy operations in the world, Joseph Gallo Farms, which produces dairy products including a variety of cheeses. The company is now run by his son, CEO Michael Gallo. He was the younger brother of Ernest and Julio, founders of E & J Gallo Winery. Joseph was sued by his brothers and forced to stop using the Gallo name on his cheese, thereafter labeled Joseph Farms.

Marie Marvingt

Marie Marvingt (20 February 1875 – 14 December 1963) was a French athlete, mountaineer, aviator and journalist. She won numerous prizes for her sporting achievements including those of swimming, cycling, mountain climbing, winter sports, ballooning, flying, riding, gymnastics, athletics, rifle shooting and fencing. She was the first woman to climb many of the peaks in the French and Swiss Alps. She was a record-breaking balloonist, an aviator and during World War I became the first woman to fly missions during conflict as a pilot. She was also a qualified surgical nurse, was the first trained and certified Flight Nurse in the world, and worked for the establishment of air ambulance services throughout the world. According to a French source, it was M. de Château-Thierry de Beaumanoir who, in 1903, named Marie Marvingt as “La fiancée du danger.” She herself used the epithet for an autobiographical publication in 1948. It is also included on the commemorative plaque on the façade of the house where she lived at 8 Place de la Carrière, Nancy.

Marie Marvingt was born at six-thirty in the evening of 20 February 1875 in Aurillac, the Chief Town of the Cantal département of France. Her father’s full name was Félix Constant Marvingt and her mother was named Elisabeth Brusquin. They had married in Metz, Moselle, Lorraine on 16 July 1861. At the date of birth they were recorded as forty eight and thirty two, respectively. Her father was “Receveur principal des Postes” – roughly equivalent to Senior Postmaster. The full names of the subject, as recorded on the certificate, are:- Marie Félicie Elisabeth Marvingt.
Later, her family moved to Metz, at that time part of Germany, where they lived from 1880-1889. When Marie Marvingt’s mother died in 1889, the girl found herself, at 14 2016 Puma fotbollsskor på nätet, in charge of a household of her father and her brother, whom she cared for while devouring books by explorers and scientists. After her mother’s death, she moved with her father and brother to Nancy in the Meurthe-et-Moselle département, where she remained for the rest of her life.
She was encouraged to participate in sports by her father, Felix. It is said that at the age of 5 she had already swum 4000m in a single day. She enjoyed many other sports including water polo, horse riding, athletics, boxing, martial arts, fencing, shooting, tennis, golf, hockey, football, winter sports, and mountaineering, and also practiced circus skills. In 1890, at the age of 15, she canoed over 400 kilometers from Nancy to Koblenz 2016 lågpris Nike fotbollsskor, Germany. In 1899 she earned her driving licence.
Marvingt became a world-class athlete who won numerous prizes in swimming, fencing, shooting, ski jumping, speed skating, luge and bobsledding. She was also a skilled mountaineer and between 1903 and 1910 she became the first woman to climb most of the peaks in the French and Swiss Alps – including traversing the Aiguille des Grands Charmoz and the Grépon Pass from Chamonix in a single day, with the guides of the Payot family of Chamonix. In 1905 during a race she became the first Frenchwoman to swim the length of the Seine through Paris. The newspapers nicknamed her “l’amphibie rouge” (“the red amphibian”) from the colour of her swimming costume.
In 1907 she won an international military shooting competition using a French army carbine and became the only woman ever awarded the palms du Premier Tireur (First Gunner palms) by a French Minister of War. She dominated the 1908 to 1910 winter sports seasons at Chamonix, Gérardmer, and Ballon d’Alsace, where she achieved first place on more than 20 occasions. On 26 January 1910 she won the Coupe Leon Auscher (Leon Auscher Cup) in the women’s bobsledding world championship.
She enjoyed cycling and rode from Nancy, France, to Naples, Italy, to see a volcanic eruption. In 1908 she was refused permission to participate in the Tour de France because the race was only open to men. Marvingt refused to relinquish her ambition and cycled the course after the race. She successfully completed the gruelling ride, a feat which only 36 of 114 male riders had managed that year. On 15 March 1910 the Académie des Sports (French Academy of Sports) awarded her a Médaille d’Or (Gold Medal) “for all sports”, the only multi-sport medal they have ever awarded.
Marie Marvingt ascended as a passenger in a free-flight balloon for the first time in 1901. Then, on 19 July 1907, she piloted one. In September 1909, she made her first solo flight as a balloon pilot. On 26 October 1909 Marvingt became the first woman to pilot a balloon across the North Sea and English Channel from Europe to England. For this flight, her balloon was called L’Étoile Filante (The Shooting Star/The Comet). She won prizes for ballooning in 1909 and 1910. She earned her balloon pilot’s certificate (#145) from the Aero-Club Stella in 1910.
In September 1909, Marie Marvingt experienced her first flight as a passenger in an aeroplane piloted by Roger Sommer. During 1910, she studied fixed-wing aviation with Hubert Latham, the Anglo-French rival of Louis Blériot, in an Antoinette aeroplane. She piloted and flew solo in this monoplane, the first woman to do so – she was the second to be licensed in a monoplane, the first being Marthe Niel.
Marie Marvingt received a pilot’s licence from the Aéro-Club de France (Aero Club of France) on 8 November 1910 Licensed No. 281, she was the third Frenchwoman to be registered after Raymonde de Laroche (No. 36) and Marthe Niel (No. 226). She was the only woman ever licensed in the difficult-to-fly Antoinette monoplane. In her first 900 flights she never “broke wood” in a crash, a record unequaled at that time.
Once licensed, Marie Marvingt competed on a number of occasions for the Coupe Femina (Femina Cup). On 3 December 1910, the Illustrated London News featured Marie Marvingt on its “Portraits and World’s News” page. A head and shoulders portrait is carried in a circular frame at the top of the page. She wears her leather flying helmet, with goggles pushed up. A fulsome report below states that she has beaten the long distance flight record for airwomen. “The flight was made for a cup offered by the Paris newspaper Femina.” She had beaten “Madame Laroche’s record”, with a flight of 27 miles in 53 minutes, piloting an Antoinette. This took place at Mourmelon-le-grand, where she was a pupil of Latham. It was probably believed that this would lead to her Femina Cup success for 1910, but this was not to be so. Incidentally, this citation also confirms her swimming prowess, including the Seine swim, as well as her mountaineering feats. Finally, on 21 December 1910, she was beaten in that year’s Femina Cup contest by Hélène Dutrieu, who won again in both 1911 and 1912. Actually, Marie Marvingt was never to grasp this trophy, since it was won by de Laroche in 1913, and then discontinued because of the war. Although the annual award results for this trophy are somewhat unclear, due to journalistic enthusiasm at the time, with a tendency to report “wins” before the year-end, these facts have now emerged and each year’s result will be fully supported by contemporary citations.
It is said that Marie Marvingt was again competing for the Coup Femina in Turin in 1911. A leader of aviation in Turin was the Sicilian-born engineer Prof. Franz Miller, who in 1909 founded the first Italian “Factory for the Production of Flying Machines” at No. 9, Via Legnano, Turin. During 1911, there were many competitions on the Italian international air circuit at Montichiari (Brescia) and flying schools were started both by Miller’s company and by the Asteria Company who advertised the availability of “both biplanes and monoplanes” with “instructors of the highest order”. However, as indicated above some reports that “she won the Coup Femina in Turin” are incorrect.
Marie Marvingt proposed the development of fixed-wing aircraft as air ambulances to the French government as early as 1910. With the help of Deperdussin company engineer Becherau (who also designed the SPAD fighter), she designed the first practical air ambulance. She carried out a campaign to raise money to purchase one for the French Government and the Red Cross, and in 1912 she ordered an air ambulance from Deperdussin, but it was never delivered because the business failed after the owner, Armand Deperdussin, embezzled company money At trial, with the verdict announced on 30 March 1917, Deperdussin was found guilty of fraud and sentenced to five years’ hard labour. He was by then already bankrupt. But by application of the law of “Sursis”, he was granted an indefinite postponement of sentence. Sadly however, he later committed suicide through shame.
In 1914 Marvingt was drawn by Émile Friant with her proposed air ambulance. During World War I she disguised herself as a man and, with the connivance of a French infantry lieutenant, served on the front lines as a Chasseur 2ième Classe (Soldier, 2nd Class) in the 42ième Bataillon de Chasseurs à Pied (42nd Battalion of Foot Soldiers). She was discovered and sent home but later participated in military operations with the Italian 3º Reggimento Alpini (3rd Regiment of Alpine Troops) in the Italian Dolomites at the direct request of Marshal Foch. She also served as a Red Cross nurse.
In 1915 Marvingt became the first woman in the world to fly combat missions when she became a volunteer pilot flying bombing missions over German-held territory and she received the Croix de guerre (Military Cross) for her aerial bombing of a German military base in Metz. Between the two World Wars she worked as a journalist, war correspondent, and medical officer with French Forces in North Africa. While in Morocco she invented metal skis and suggested their use on aeroplanes landing on sand.
Marvingt devoted the remainder of her long life to the concept of aeromedical evacuation, giving more than 3000 conferences and seminars on the subject on at least four continents. She was co-founder of the French organisation Les Amies De L’Aviation Sanitaire (Friends of Medical Aviation) and was also one of the organizers behind the success of the First International Congress on Medical Aviation in 1929.
In 1931 she created the Challenge Capitaine-Écheman (Captain Écheman Challenge) which gave a prize for the best civil aircraft which was transformable to an air ambulance. In 1934 she established a civil air ambulance service in Morocco and was subsequently awarded the Medaille de la Paix du Maroc (Medal of Peace of Morocco). In the same year she developed training courses for the Infirmières de l’Air (Nurses of the Air) and in 1935 became the first person certified as a Flight Nurse. In 1934 and 1935 she wrote, directed and appeared in two documentary films about the history, development and use of air ambulances: Les Ailes qui Sauvent (Wings which Save) and Sauvés par la Colombe (Saved by the Dove). On January 24, 1935 Marvingt was made a Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur (Knight of the Legion of Honour), and was promoted to the grade of Officer in 1949.
The Flying Ambulance Corps operated by women pilots and staffed by doctors and trained nurses 2016 Puma fotbollsskor på nätet, was intended to rescue the wounded on the battlefield using aircraft, landing at designated ground stations with crews of nurses, stretcher-bearers, and effective medical aid. By 1939, it appeared vital again and Marie Marvingt had been working on this and similar schemes for nearly thirty years. Whilst organising “L’Aviation Sanitaire” 2016 Puma fotbollsskor på nätet, recruiting women pilots and nurses, she made several visits to America to confer with Government officials in that country. In France itself, she had been supported by authorities including Marshals Foch and Joffre. Her schemes caught the imagination of the young women of her country and at the start of WW II, this escalated. More than five hundred nurses with at least ten hours’ flying experience joined a new parachute corps, directly initiated by another famous French flier, Maryse Hilsz,. Dressed in full nursing uniform and carrying supplies, Hilz and others made parachute landings on occasions when weather or ground conditions made it impossible for flying ambulances to land. With the fall of France, Hilz joined the resistance and briefly, just after the war, was involved in setting up a women pilots’ corps in the regular French Air Force (Armée de l’air). During World War II Marie Marvingt also established a convalescent centre for wounded aviators and served as a surgical nurse, inventing a new type of surgical suture. On 30 January 1955, she received the Deutsch de la Meurthe grand prize from the Fédération Nationale d’Aéronautique (French National Federation of Aeronautics) at the Sorbonne for her work in aviation medicine.
On 20 February 1955, her eightieth birthday, Marvingt was flown over Nancy by a U.S. Air Force officer from Toul-Rosières Air Base in an American fighter jet. In the same year she also studied piloting helicopters, though she never earned her helicopter pilot’s licence. In 1961, at the age of 86, she cycled from Nancy to Paris.
Marie Marvingt died on 14 December 1963, aged 88, at Laxou, a small commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in north-eastern France. Her funeral was on 17 December in Saint-Epvre and she is buried in the Cimetière de Préville, Nancy, department, Lorraine, France. A web-site of French cemeteries and memorials organised by Bertrand Beyern records “Marvingt Marie (1875-1963), aviatrice” in Nancy, Cimetière de Préville.
In France, there are streets, gymnasia, schools, flying clubs, scout groups, and an apartment complex named after her. France issued an air mail stamp in her honour on 29 June 2004. Several annual awards are given in her memory including those of the Soroptimist Club of Aurillac, France, and one sponsored by the French Aviation and Space Medicine Association (SOFRAMAS) through the United States Aerospace Medical Association.
In 2004, Marie Marvingt was commemorated by a French Airmail stamp bearing the face value of €5.00.

Rip Off Press

Rip Off Press, Inc mackage sale. was a seminal publishing company that specialized in adult-themed “underground” comic books and graphic novels. They now operate as a mail-order retailer and distributor.
Rip Off Press is also notable for being the original company to publish the fourth edition of the Principia Discordia, a Discordian religious text written by Gregory Hill and Kerry Thornley. It was also an early publisher of the infamous booklet on drug manufacturing, Psychedelic Chemistry.

The company was founded January 17, 1969, in San Francisco by Fred Todd and expatriate Texans Dave Moriaty and cartoonists Gilbert Shelton and Jack Jackson. The initial plan was to print rock band promotional posters on an old press and do comix on the side, but by 1972 the printing business had faded away and the company had become a publishing house. Early works published by Rip Off Press included comix by Dave Sheridan (all co-published with Gary Arlington’s San Francisco Comic Book Company), The Rip Off Review of Western Culture omnibus, and Shelton’s The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers.
Rip Off Press was located at 1250 17th Street in San Francisco from 1970 until 1985. By the mid-1970s Moriaty and Jackson had long since gone back to Texas, and by the time the company moved from 17th Street, Shelton had relocated to France miu miu bags. Jay Kinney joined the company as an editor in 1981, but left after a few months on the job.
The company moved to a smaller space on San Jose Avenue near the city’s southern border in mid-1985, with warehouse space across town at the Bayview Industrial Park jordans shoes wholesale. This three-story, block-square building, which housed over a hundred other businesses, burned to the ground on April 6, 1986, following an explosion in an illegal fireworks factory in the basement.
Thus freed of a 17-year accumulation of comix and other paraphernalia bogner ski jackets, Fred Todd (who at this point was the only original partner still working in the business) decided to relocate Rip Off Press to Auburn, California, where he and his wife Kathe could continue to run the company while raising their two small children in more pleasant surroundings. The move was made in June 1987, and during the next few years Rip Off Press continued to publish Shelton’s The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers plus the Rip Off Comix anthology magazine, Larry Gonick’s Cartoon History of the Universe, Matt Howarth’s Those Annoying Post Brothers, and many other titles. The popularity of X-rated comics in the late 1980s/early 1990s led to such titles as Strips by Chuck Austen, The Girl by Kevin J. Taylor, and Doll by classic underground comix creator Guy Colwell.
After the collapse of the direct market in the early 1990s (fueled by Marvel Comics’ withdrawal of its 40% market share from the distribution system), Rip Off Press began taking steps to cut costs and gradually retreated from publishing. They shifted their business to selling backlist comics in its store and to mail order customers, plus the to many fans finding them online. The Todds moved the business to much smaller quarters adjoining their home in 1999, where they continue to sell comix, mostly through the company website. The website was disabled for a time in 2011-2012, during which time it was completely redesigned and a large number of collectors’ items (including historic ad pieces, rare press sheets, publisher’s overlay proofs from the company’s publishing history, and more) were added to its offerings.