Murdoch Mysteries/Episodenliste

Diese Episodenliste enthält alle Episoden der kanadischen Dramaserie Murdoch Mysteries, sortiert nach der kanadischen Erstausstrahlung. Die Fernsehserie umfasst derzeit acht Staffeln mit 114 Episoden.

Die Erstausstrahlung der ersten Staffel war vom 20. Januar bis zum 13. April 2008 auf CHMI, dem lokalen Ableger in Winnipeg von Citytv statt. Landesweit wurde die Staffel ab dem 24. Januar 2008 auf Citytv gesendet. Die britische Ausstrahlung fand vom 19. Februar bis zum 20. Mai 2008 auf Alibi statt. Eine deutschsprachige Erstausstrahlung wurde noch nicht gesendet.
Die Erstausstrahlung der zweiten Staffel war vom 10. Februar bis zum 27. Mai 2009 zeitgleich auf dem kanadischen Fernsehsender Citytv und dem britischen Fernsehsender Alibi zu sehen. Eine deutschsprachige Erstausstrahlung wurde noch nicht gesendet.
Die Erstausstrahlung der dritten Staffel fand vom 16 adidas schuhe. Februar bis zum 11. Mai 2010 auf britischen Fernsehsender Alibi statt. Die kanadische Erstausstrahlung sendete der Sender Citytv vom 14. März bis zum 13. Juni 2010. Eine deutschsprachige Erstausstrahlung wurde noch nicht gesendet.
Die Erstausstrahlung der vierten Staffel wurde zwischen dem 15. Februar und dem 10. Mai 2011 auf dem britischen Fernsehsender Alibi gesendet. Die kanadische Ausstrahlung sendete der Sender Citytv vom 7. Juni bis zum 31. August 2011. Eine deutschsprachige Erstausstrahlung wurde noch nicht gesendet.
Die Erstausstrahlung der fünften Staffel war vom 28. Februar bis zum 22. Mai 2012 auf britischen Fernsehsender Alibi zu sehen. Die kanadische Ausstrahlung sendete der Sender Citytv zwischen dem 6. Juni und dem 28. August 2012 2016 fußballschuh. Eine deutschsprachige Erstausstrahlung wurde noch nicht gesendet bottega veneta 2016.
Die Erstausstrahlung der sechsten Staffel wurde vom 7. Januar bis zum 15. April 2013 auf dem kanadischen Fernsehsender CBC gesendet. Die britische Ausstrahlung fand vom 4. Februar bis zum 29. April 2013 auf Alibi statt. Eine deutschsprachige Erstausstrahlung wurde noch nicht gesendet.
Die Erstausstrahlung der siebten Staffel war vom 30. September 2013 bis zum 7. April 2014 auf dem kanadischen Fernsehsender CBC zu sehen. Die britische Ausstrahlung wurde vom 27. Januar bis zum 26. Mai 2014 auf Alibi ausgestrahlt. Eine deutschsprachige Erstausstrahlung wurde noch nicht gesendet.
Die Erstausstrahlung der achten Staffel wird seit dem 6

Bogner Damen Rosa Weiß

Bogner Damen Laria-D Unten Skijacke Anti-Falten Lange Ärmel Blümchen Vögel Stickerei Rosa Weiß



. Oktober 2014 auf CBC gesendet. Die britische Ausstrahlung erfolgt seit dem 26. Januar 2015 auf Alibi. Eine deutschsprachige Erstausstrahlung wurde noch nicht gesendet.
Anfang März 2015 verlängerte CBC die Serie um eine neunte Staffel.

Codex Gregorianus

The Codex Gregorianus (Eng. Gregorian Code) is the title of a collection of constitutions (legal pronouncements) of Roman emperors over a century and a half from the 130s to 290s AD. It is believed to have been produced around 291-4 but the exact date is unknown.

The Codex takes its name from its author, a certain Gregorius (or Gregorianus), about whom nothing is known for certain, though it has been suggested that he acted as the magister libellorum (drafter of responses to petitions) to the emperors Carinus and Diocletian in the 280s and early 290s. The work does not survive intact and much about its original form remains obscure, though from the surviving references and excerpts it is clear that it was a multi-book work, subdivided into thematic headings (tituli) that contained a mixture of rescripts to private petitioners, letters to officials, and public edicts, organised chronologically. Scholars’ estimates as to the number of books vary from 14 to 16, with the majority favouring 15. Where evidence of the mode of original publication is preserved, it is overwhelmingly to posting up, suggesting that Gregorius was working with material in the public domain.
In the fourth and fifth centuries, for those wishing to cite imperial constitutions, the Codex Gregorianus became a standard work of reference, often cited alongside the Codex Hermogenianus. The earliest explicit quotations are by the anonymous author of the Mosaicarum et Romanarum Legum Collatio, or Lex Dei as it is sometimes known, probably in the 390s. In the early fifth century Augustine of Hippo cites the Gregorian Code in discussion of adulterous marriages. Most famously, the Gregorian and Hermogenian Codes are cited as a model for the organisation of imperial constitutions since Constantine I in the directive ordering their collection in what was to become the Codex Theodosianus, addressed to the senate of Constantinople on 26 March 429, and drafted by Theodosius II’s quaestor Antiochus Chuzon.
In the post-Theodosian era both Codes are quoted as sources of imperial constitutions by the mid-fifth-century anonymous author of the Consultatio veteris cuiusdam iurisconsulti (probably based in Gaul); are cited in marginal cross-references by a user of the Fragmenta Vaticana; and in notes from an eastern law school lecture course on Ulpian’s Ad Sabinum.
In the Justinianic era, the antecessor (law professor) Thalelaeus cited the Gregorian Code in his commentary on Codex Justinianus. In the west, some time before 506, both codices were supplemented by a set of clarificatory notes (interpretationes), which accompany their abridged versions in the Breviary of Alaric, and were cited as sources in the Lex Romana Burgundionum attributed to Gundobad, king of the Burgundians (473–516).
Texts drawn from the Codex Gregorianus achieved status as authoritative sources of law simultaneously with the original work’s deliberate eclipse by two codification initiatives of the sixth century. First fotbollskläder online, the abridged version incorporated in the Breviary of Alaric, promulgated in 506, explicitly superseded the original full text throughout Visigothic Gaul and Spain. Then, as part of the emperor Justinian’s grand codificatory programme, it formed a major component of the Codex Justinianus fotboll kläder, which came into force in its first edition across the Roman Balkans and eastern provinces in AD 529. This was subsequently rolled out to Latin north Africa, following its reconquest from the Vandals in 530, and then Italy in 554. So, by the mid sixth century the original text of the Gregorian Code had been consigned to the dustbin of history over most of the Mediterranean world. Only in Merovingian and Frankish Gaul were copies of the full version still exploited between the sixth and ninth centuries, as attested by the appendices to manuscripts of the Breviary.
It is because of its exploitation for the Codex Justinianus that the influence of Gregorius’ work is still felt today. As such, it formed part of the Corpus Juris Civilis of the revived medieval and early modern Roman law tradition. This in turn was the model and inspiration for the civil law codes that have dominated European systems since the Code Napoleon of 1804 fotbollskläder online.
There has been no attempt at a full reconstruction of the all the surviving texts that probably derive from the CG, partly because of the difficulty of distinguishing with absolute certainty constitutions of Gregorius from those of Hermogenian in the Codex Justinianus in the years of the mid 290s, where they appear to overlap. Tony Honoré (1994) provides the full text of all the private rescripts of the relevant period but in a single chronological sequence, not according to their possible location in the CG. The fullest edition of CG remains that of Haenel (1837: 1–56), though he included only texts explicitly attributed to CG by ancient authorities and so did not cite the CJ material, on the grounds that it was only implicitly attributed. Krueger (1890) edited the Visigothic abridgement of CG, with its accompanying interpretationes (pp. 224–33), and provided a reconstruction of the structure of the CG, again excluding CJ material (pp. 236–42), inserting the full text only where it did not otherwise appear in the Collectio iuris Romani Anteiustiniani. Rotondi (1922: 154–58), Scherillo (1934), and Sperandio (2005: 389–95) provide only an outline list of the titles fotboll kläder, though the latter offers a useful concordance with Lenel’s edition of the Edictum Perpetuum. Karampoula (2008) conflates the reconstructions of Krueger (1890) and Rotondi (1922) but provides text (including Visigothic interpretationes) in a modern Greek version.
On 26 January 2010, Simon Corcoran and Benet Salway at University College London announced that they had discovered seventeen fragments of what they believed to be the original version of the code.

Buddhist ethics

Buddhist ethics are traditionally based on what Buddhists view as the enlightened perspective of the Buddha, or other enlightened beings such as Bodhisattvas. The Indian term for ethics or morality used in Buddhism is Śīla (Sanskrit: शील) or sīla (Pāli). Śīla in Buddhism is one of three sections of the Noble Eightfold Path, and is a code of conduct that embraces a commitment to harmony and self-restraint with the principal motivation being non-violence, or freedom from causing harm. It has been variously described as virtue, right conduct, morality, moral discipline and precept.
Sīla is an internal, aware, and intentional ethical behavior, according to one’s commitment to the path of liberation. It is an ethical compass within self and relationships, rather than what is associated with the English word “morality” (i.e., obedience, a sense of obligation Replica Bogner sale, and external constraint).
Sīla is one of the three practices foundational to Buddhism and the non-sectarian Vipassana movement — sīla, samādhi, and paññā as well as the Theravadin foundations of sīla, Dāna, and Bhavana. It is also the second pāramitā. Sīla is also wholehearted commitment to what is wholesome. Two aspects of sīla are essential to the training: right “performance” (caritta), and right “avoidance” (varitta). Honoring the precepts of sīla is considered a “great gift” (mahadana) to others, because it creates an atmosphere of trust, respect, and security. It means the practitioner poses no threat to another person’s life, property, family, rights, or well-being.
Moral instructions are included in Buddhist scriptures or handed down through tradition. Most scholars of Buddhist ethics thus rely on the examination of Buddhist scriptures, and the use of anthropological evidence from traditional Buddhist societies, to justify claims about the nature of Buddhist ethics.

The source for the ethics of Buddhists around the world are the Three Jewels of the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. The Buddha is seen as the discoverer of liberating knowledge and hence the foremost teacher. The Dharma is both the teachings of the Buddha’s path and the truths of these teachings. The Sangha is the community of noble ones (ariya), who practice the Dhamma and have attained some knowledge and can thus provide guidance and preserve the teachings. Having proper understanding of the teachings is vital for proper ethical conduct. The Buddha taught that right view was a necessary prerequisite for right conduct.
A central foundation for Buddhist morality is the law of Karma and Rebirth. The Buddha is recorded to have stated that right view consisted in believing that (among other things): “‘there is fruit and ripening of deeds well done or ill done’: what one does matters and has an effect on one’s future; ‘there is this world, there is a world beyond’: this world is not unreal, and one goes on to another world after death” (MN 117, Maha-cattarisaka Sutta).
Karma is a word which literally means “action” and is seen as a natural law of the universe which manifests as cause and effect. In the Buddhist conception, Karma is a certain type of moral action which has moral consequences on the actor. The core of karma is the mental intention, and hence the Buddha stated ‘It is intention (cetana), O monks, that I call karma; having willed one acts through body, speech, or mind’ (AN 6.63). Therefore, accidentally hurting someone is not bad Karma, but having hurtful thoughts is. Buddhist ethics sees these patterns of motives and actions as conditioning future actions and circumstances – the fruit (Phala) of one’s present actions, including the condition and place of the actor’s future life circumstances (though these can also be influenced by other random factors). One’s past actions are said to mold one’s consciousness and to leave seeds (Bīja) which later ripen in the next life. The goal of Buddhist practice is generally to break the cycle, though one can also work for rebirth in a better condition through good deeds.
The root of one’s intention is what conditions an action to be good or bad. There are three good roots (non-attachment, benevolence, and understanding) and three negative roots (greed, hatred and delusion). Actions which produce good outcomes are termed “merit” (puñña – fruitful, auspicious) and obtaining merit is an important goal of lay Buddhist practice. The early Buddhist texts mention three ‘bases for effecting karmic fruitfulness’ (puñña-kiriya-vatthus): giving (dana), moral virtue (sila) and meditation. One’s state of mind while performing good actions is seen as more important than the action itself. The Buddhist Sangha is seen as the most meritorious “field of merit”. Negative actions accumulate bad karmic results, though one’s regret and attempts to make up for it can ameliorate these results.
The Four Noble Truths express one of the central Buddhist worldview which sees worldly existence as fundamentally unsatisfactory and stressful (Dukkha). Dukkha is seen to arise from craving, and putting an end to craving can lead to liberation (Nirvana). The way to put an end to craving is by following the Noble Eightfold Path taught by the Buddha, which includes the ethical elements of right speech, right action and right livelihood. From the point of view of the Four Noble Truths, an action is seen as ethical if it is conductive to the elimination of Dukkha. Understanding the truth of Dukkha in life allows one to analyze the factors for its arising, that is craving, and allows us to feel compassion and sympathy for others. Comparing oneself with others and then applying the Golden Rule is said to follow from this appreciation of Dukkha. From the Buddhist perspective, an act is also moral if it promotes spiritual development by conforming to the Eightfold Path and leading to Nirvana. In Mahayana Buddhism, an emphasis is made on the liberation of all beings. Therefore, special beings called Bodhisattvas are believed to work tirelessly for the liberation of all and are seen as important figures.
The foundation of Buddhist ethics for laypeople is The Five Precepts which are common to all Buddhist schools. The precepts or “five moral virtues” (pañca-silani) are not commands but a set of voluntary commitments or guidelines to help one live a life in which one is happy, without worries, and able to meditate well. The precepts are supposed to prevent suffering and to weaken the effects of greed, hatred and delusion. They were the basic moral instructions which the Buddha gave to laypeople and monks alike. Breaking one’s sīla as pertains to sexual conduct introduces harmfulness towards one’s practice or the practice of another person if it involves uncommitted relationship. When one “goes for refuge” to the Buddha’s teachings, one formally takes the five precepts which are:
Buddhists often take the precepts in formal ceremonies with members of the monastic Sangha, though they can also be undertaken as private personal commitments. Keeping each precept is said to develop its opposite positive virtue. Abstaining from killing for example develops kindness and compassion, while abstaining from stealing develops non-attachment.
There is also a more strict set of precepts called the eight precepts which are taken at specific religious days or religious retreats. The eight precepts encourage further discipline and are modeled on the monastic code. In the eight precepts, the third precept on sexual misconduct is made more strict and becomes a precept of celibacy. The three additional rules of the Eight Precepts are:
Novice-monks use the ten precepts while fully ordained Buddhist monks also have a larger set of monastic precepts, called the Prātimokṣa (227 rules for monks in the Theravādin recension). Monks are supposed to be celibate and are also traditionally not allowed to touch money. The rules and code of conduct for monks and nuns is outlined in the Vinaya. The precise content of the scriptures on vinaya (vinayapiṭaka) differ slightly according to different schools, and different schools or subschools set different standards for the degree of adherence to the vinaya.
In Mahayana Buddhism, another common set of moral guidelines are the Bodhisattva vows and the Bodhisattva Precepts or the “Ten Great Precepts”. The Bodhisattva Precepts which is derived from the Mahayana Brahmajala Sutra include the Five precepts with some other additions such as the precept against slandering the Buddha’s teachings. These exist above and beyond the existing monastic code, or lay follower precepts. The Brahmajala Sutra also includes a list of 48 minor precepts which prohibit the eating of meat, storing of weapons, teaching for the sake of profit, abandoning Mahayana teachings and teaching non Mahayana Dharma. These precepts have no parallel in Theravāda Buddhism.
Following the precepts is not the only dimension of Buddhist morality, there are also several important virtues, motivations and habits which are widely promoted by Buddhist texts and traditions. At the core of these virtues are the three roots of non-attachment (araga), benevolence (advesa), and understanding (amoha).
One list of virtues which is widely promoted in Buddhism are the Pāramitās (perfections) – Dāna (generosity), Sīla (proper conduct), Nekkhamma (renunciation), Paññā (wisdom), Viriya (energy), Khanti (patience), Sacca (honesty), Adhiṭṭhāna (determination), Mettā (Good-Will), Upekkhā (equanimity).
The Four divine abidings (Brahmaviharas) are seen as central virtues and intentions in Buddhist ethics, psychology and meditation. The four divine abidings are good will, compassion, empathetic joy, and equanimity. Developing these virtues through meditation and right action promotes happiness, generates good merit and trains the mind for ethical action.
An important quality which supports right action is Heedfulness (Appamada), a combination of energy/effort (Viriya) and Mindfulness. Mindfulness is an alert presence of mind which allows one to be more aware of what is happening with one’s intentional states. Heedfulness is aided by ‘clear comprehension’ or ‘discrimination’ (Sampajañña), which gives rise to moral knowledge of what is to be done. Another important supporting quality of Buddhist morality is Trust or Confidence in the teachings of the Buddha and in one’s own ability to put them into practice. Wisdom and Understanding are seen as a prerequisite for acting morally. Having an understanding of the true nature of reality is seen as leading to ethical actions. Understanding the truth of not-self for example, allows one to become detached from selfish motivations and therefore allows one to be more altruistic. Having an understanding of the workings of the mind and of the law of karma also makes one less likely to perform an unethical action.
The Buddha promoted ‘self-respect’ (Hri) and Regard for consequences (Apatrapya), as important virtues. Self-respect is what caused a person to avoid actions which were seen to harm one’s integrity and Ottappa is an awareness of the effects of one’s actions and sense of embarrassment before others.
Giving (Dāna) is seen as the beginning of virtue in Theravada Buddhism and as the basis for developing further on the path. In Buddhist countries, this is seen in the giving of alms to Buddhist monastics but also extends to generosity in general (towards family, friends, coworkers, guests, animals). Giving is said to make one happy, generate good merit as well as develop non-attachment, therefore it is not just good because it creates good karmic fruits, but it also develops one’s spiritual qualities. In Buddhist thought, the cultivation of dana and ethical conduct will themselves refine consciousness to such a level that rebirth in one of the lower hells is unlikely, even if there is no further Buddhist practice. There is nothing improper or un-Buddhist about limiting one’s aims to this level of attainment.
An important value in Buddhist ethics is non-harming or non-violence (ahimsa) to all living creatures from the lowest insect to humans which is associated with the first precept of not killing. The Buddhist practice of this does not extend to the extremes exhibited by Jainism (in Buddhism, unintentional killing is not karmically bad), but from both the Buddhist and Jain perspectives, non-violence suggests an intimate involvement with, and relationship to, all living things.
The Buddha also emphasized that ‘good friendship (Kalyāṇa-mittatā), good association, good intimacy’ was the whole, not the half of the holy life (SN 45.2). Developing strong friendships with good people on the spiritual path is seen as a key aspect of Buddhism and as a key way to support and grow in one’s practice.
In Mahayana Buddhism, another important foundation for moral action is the Bodhisattva ideal. Bodhisattvas are beings which have chosen to work towards the salvation of all living beings. In Mahayana Buddhist texts, this path of great compassion is promoted as being superior to that of the Arhat because the Bodhisattva is seen as working for the benefit of all beings. A Bodhisattva is one who arouses a powerful emotion called Bodhicitta (mind of enlightenment) which is a mind which is oriented towards the awakening of oneself and all beings.
The first precept is the abstaining from the taking of life, and the Buddha clearly stated that the taking of human or animal life would lead to negative karmic consequences and was non conductive to liberation. Right livelihood includes not trading in weapons or in hunting and butchering animals. Various suttas state that one should always have a mind filled with compassion and loving kindness for all beings, this is to be extended to hurtful, evil people as in the case of Angulimala the murderer and to every kind of animal, even pests and vermin (monks are not allowed to kill any animal, for any reason). Buddhist teachings and institutions therefore tend to promote peace and compassion, acting as safe havens during times of conflict. In spite of this, some Buddhists, including monastics such as Japanese warrior monks have historically performed acts of violence. In China, the Shaolin Monastery developed a martial arts tradition to defend themselves from attack.
In Mahayana Buddhism, the concept of skillful means (upaya) has in some circumstances been used to excuse the act of killing, if it is being done for compassionate reasons. This form of “compassionate killing” is allowed by the Upaya-kausalya sutra and the Maha-Upaya-kausalya sutra only when it “follows from virtuous thought.” Some texts acknowledge the negative karmic consequences of killing, and yet promote it out of compassion. The Bodhisattva-bhumi, a key Mahayana text, states that if a Bodhisattva sees someone about to kill other Bodhisattvas, they may take it upon themselves to kill this murderer with the thought that:
“If I take the life of this sentient being, I myself may be reborn as one of the creatures of hell. Better that I be reborn a creature of hell than that this living being, having committed a deed of immediate retribution, should go straight to hell.”
If then, the intention is purely to protect others from evil, the act of killing is sometimes seen as meritorious.
The Buddhist analysis of conflict begins with the ‘Three Poisons’ of greed, hatred and delusion. Craving and attachment, the cause of suffering, is also the cause of conflict. Buddhist philosopher Shantideva states in his Siksasamuccaya: “Wherever conflict arises among living creatures, the sense of possession is the cause”. Craving for material resources as well as grasping to political or religious views is seen as a major source of war. One’s attachment to self-identity, and identification with tribe, nation state or religion is also another root of human conflict according to Buddhism.
The Buddha promoted non-violence in various ways, he encouraged his followers not to fight in wars and not to sell or trade weapons. The Buddha stated that in war, both victor and defeated suffer: “The victor begets enmity. The vanquished dwells in sorrow. The tranquil lives happily, abandoning both victory and defeat” (Dhammapada, 201). Buddhist philosopher Candrakīrti wrote that soldiery was not a respectable profession: “the sacrifice of life in battle should not be respected, since this is the basis for harmful actions.” The Mahayana Brahmajala Sutra states that those who take the Bodhisattva vows should not take any part in war, watch a battle, procure or store weapons, praise or approve of killers and aid the killing of others in any way. In his Abhidharma-kosa, Vasubandhu writes that all soldiers in an army are guilty of the killing of the army, not just those who perform the actual killing. Modern Buddhist peace activists include The 14th Dalai Lama, Aung San Suu Kyi, Thich Nhat Hanh, Sulak Sivaraksa, A. T. Ariyaratne, Preah Maha Ghosananda and Nichidatsu Fujii.
While pacifism is the Buddhist ideal, Buddhist states and kingdoms have waged war throughout history and Buddhists have found ways to justify these conflicts. The 5th Dalai Lama who was installed as the head of Buddhism in Tibet by Gushri Khan after the Oirat invasion of Tibet (1635-1642), praised the acts of the Khan and said that he was an emanation of the great Bodhisattva Vajrapani. Buddhist warrior monks in feudal Japan sometimes committed organized acts of war, protecting their territories and attacking rival Buddhist sects. During the late Heian Period, the Tendai school was a particularly powerful sect, whose influential monasteries could wield armies of monks. A key text of this sect was the Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra, which contains passages allowing the use of violence for the defense of the Dharma. The Ashikaga period saw military conflict between the Tendai school, Jōdo Shinshū school and the Nichiren Buddhists. Zen Buddhism was influential among the samurai, and their Bushido code.
During World War II almost all Japanese Buddhists temples (except the Soka Gakkai) strongly supported Japanese imperialism and militarization. The Japanese Pan-Buddhist Society (Myowa Kai) rejected criticism from Chinese Buddhists, stating that “We now have no choice but to exercise the benevolent forcefulness of ‘killing one in order that many may live’ (issatsu tashō) and that the war was absolutely necessary to implement the dharma in Asia.
There is no single Buddhist view concerning abortion although traditional Buddhism rejects abortion because it involves the deliberate destroying of a human life and regards human life as starting at conception. Although some Buddhist views can be interpreted as holding that life exists before conception because of the never ending cycle of life. The traditional Buddhist view of rebirth sees consciousness as present in the embryo at conception, not as developing over time. In the Vinaya (Theravada and Sarvastivada) then, the causing of an abortion is seen as an act of killing punishable by expulsion from the monastic Sangha. The Abhidharma-kosa states that ‘life is there from the moment of conception and should not be disturbed for it has the right to live’.
One of the reasons this is seen as an evil act is because a human rebirth is seen as a precious and unique opportunity to do good deeds and attain liberation. The Jataka stories contain tales of women who perform abortions being reborn in a hell. In the case where the mother’s life is in jeopardy, many traditional Buddhists agree that abortion is permissible. This is the only legally permissible reason for abortion in Sri Lanka and is also a view accepted in the Tibetan tradition as argued by Ganden Tri Rinpoche. In the case of rape, however, most Buddhists argue that following an act of violence by allowing ‘another kind of violence towards another individual’ would not be ethical. Aborting a fetus that is malformed is also seen as immoral by most Buddhists.
Those practicing in Japan and the United States are said to be more tolerant of abortion than those who live elsewhere. In Japan, women sometimes participate in Mizuko kuyo (水子供養 — lit. Newborn Baby Memorial Service) after an induced abortion or an abortion as the result of a miscarriage; a similar Taiwanese ritual is called yingling gongyang. In China abortion is also widely practiced, but in Tibet it is very rare. Thus while most Buddhists would agree that abortion is wrong, they are less likely to push for laws banning the practice. The Dalai Lama has said that abortion is “negative,” but there are exceptions. He said, “I think abortion should be approved or disapproved according to each circumstance.”
While abortion is problematic in Buddhism, contraception is generally a non issue.
Buddhism understands life as being pervaded by Dukkha, as unsatisfactory and stressful. Ending one’s life to escape present suffering is seen as futile because one will just be reborn again, and again. One of the three forms of craving is craving for annihilation (vibhava tanha), and this form of craving is the root of future suffering. Dying with an unwholesome and agitated state of mind is seen as leading to a bad rebirth, so suicide is seen as creating negative karma. Ending one’s life is also seen as throwing away the precious opportunity to generate positive karma. While suicide does not seem to be interpreted as a breaking of the first precept (not killing other beings) it is still seen as a grave and unwholesome action.
In Theravada Buddhism, for a monk to praise the advantages of death, including simply telling a person of the miseries of life or the bliss of dying and going to heaven in such a way that he/she might feel inspired to commit suicide or simply pine away to death, is explicitly stated as a breach in one of highest vinaya code regarding prohibition of harming life, hence it will result in automatic expulsion from Sangha.
Buddhism sees the experience of dying as a very sensitive moment in one’s spiritual life because the quality of one’s mind at the time of death is believed to condition one’s future rebirth. The Buddhist ideal is to die in a calm but conscious state, while learning to let go. Dying consciously, without negative thoughts but rather joyously with good thoughts in mind is seen as a good transition into the next life. Chanting and reciting Buddhist texts is a common practice; in Tibet the Bardo Thodol is used to guide the dying to a good rebirth.
Traditional Buddhism would hold Euthanasia, where one brings about the death of a suffering patient (whether or not they desire this) so as to prevent further pain, as a breach of the first precept. The argument that such a killing is an act of compassion because it prevents suffering is unacceptable to traditional Buddhist theology because it is seen to be deeply rooted in delusion. This is because the suffering being who was euthanised would just end up being reborn and having to suffer due to their karma (even though, not all suffering is due to karma), and hence killing them does not help them escape suffering. The Abhidharma-kosa clearly states that the killing of one’s sick and aged parents is an act of delusion. The act of killing someone in the process of death also ruins their chance to mindfully experience pain and learn to let go of the body, hence desire for euthanasia would be a form of aversion to physical pain and a craving for non-becoming. According to Kalu Rinpoche however, choosing to be removed from life support is karmically neutral. The choice not to receive medical treatment when one is terminal is then not seen as morally reprehensible, as long as it does not arise from a feeling of aversion to life. This would also apply to not resuscitating a terminal patient.
Buddhism places great emphasis on the sanctity of life and hence in theory forbids the death penalty. However, capital punishment has been used in most historically Buddhist states. The first of the Five Precepts (Panca-sila) is to abstain from destruction of life. Chapter 10 of the Dhammapada states:
Chapter 26, the final chapter of the Dhammapada, states “Him I call a brahmin who has put aside weapons and renounced violence toward all creatures. He neither kills nor helps others to kill”. These sentences are interpreted by many Buddhists (especially in the West) as an injunction against supporting any legal measure which might lead to the death penalty. However, almost throughout history, countries where Buddhism has been the official religion (which have included most of the Far East and Indochina) have practiced the death penalty. One exception is the abolition of the death penalty by the Emperor Saga of Japan in 818. This lasted until 1165, although in private manors executions conducted as a form of retaliation continued to be conducted.
Buddhism does not see humans as being in a special moral category over animals or as having any kind of God given dominion over them as Christianity does. Humans are seen as being more able to make moral choices, and this means that they should protect and be kind to animals who are also suffering beings who are living in samsara. Buddhism also sees humans as part of nature, not as separate from it. Thich Naht Hanh summarizes the Buddhist view of harmony with nature thus:
We classify other animals and living beings as nature, acting as if we ourselves are not part of it. Then we pose the question ‘How should we deal with Nature?’ We should deal with nature the way we should deal with ourselves! We should not harm ourselves; we should not harm nature…Human beings and nature are inseparable.
Early Buddhist monastics spent a lot of time in the forests, which was seen as an excellent place for meditation and this tradition continues to be practiced by the monks of the Thai Forest Tradition.
There is a divergence of views within Buddhism on the need for vegetarianism, with some schools of Buddhism rejecting such a claimed need and with most Buddhists in fact eating meat. Many Mahayana Buddhists – especially the Chinese and Vietnamese traditions – strongly oppose meat-eating on scriptural grounds.
The first precept of Buddhism focuses mainly on direct participation in the destruction of life. This is one reason that the Buddha made a distinction between killing animals and eating meat, and refused to introduce vegetarianism into monastic practice. While early Buddhist texts like the Pali Canon frown upon hunting, butchering, fishing and ‘trading in flesh’ (meat or livestock) as professions, they do not ban the act of eating meat. Direct participation also includes ordering or encouraging someone to kill an animal for you.
The Buddhist king Ashoka promoted vegetarian diets and attempted to decrease the number of animals killed for food in his kingdom by introducing ‘no slaughter days’ during the year. He gave up hunting trips, banned the killing of specific animals and decreased the use of meat in the royal household. Ashoka even banned the killing of some vermin or pests. His example was followed by later Sri Lankan kings. One of Ashoka’s rock edicts states:
Here (in my domain) no living beings are to be slaughtered or offered in sacrifice…Formerly, in the kitchen of Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, hundreds of thousands of animals were killed every day to make curry. But now with the writing of this Dhamma edict only three creatures, two peacocks and a deer are killed, and the deer not always. And in time, not even these three creatures will be killed.
Many Buddhists, especially in East Asia, believe that Buddhism advocates or promotes vegetarianism. While Buddhist theory tends to equate killing animals with killing people (and avoids the conclusion that killing can sometimes be ethical, e.g. defense of others), outside of the Chinese and Vietnamese monastic tradition, most Buddhists do eat meat in practice. There is some controversy surrounding whether or not the Buddha himself died from eating rancid pork. While most Chinese and Vietnamese monastics are vegetarian, vegetarian Tibetans are rare, due to the harsh Himalayan climate. Japanese lay people tend to eat meat, but monasteries tend to be vegetarian. The Dalai Lama, after contracting Hepatitis B, was advised by doctors to switch to a high animal-protein diet. The Dalai Lama eats vegetarian every second day, so he effectively eats a vegetarian diet for 6 months of the year. In the West, vegetarianism among Buddhists is also common.
In the Pali version of the Tripitaka, there are number of occasions in which the Buddha ate meat as well as recommending certain types of meat as a cure for medical conditions. On one occasion, a general sent a servant to purchase meat specifically to feed the Buddha. The Buddha declared that:
Meat should not be eaten under three circumstances: when it is seen or heard or suspected (that a living being has been purposely slaughtered for the eater); these, Jivaka, are the three circumstances in which meat should not be eaten, Jivaka! I declare there are three circumstances in which meat can be eaten: when it is not seen or heard or suspected (that a living being has been purposely slaughtered for the eater); Jivaka, I say these are the three circumstances in which meat can be eaten.
The Buddha held that because the food is given by a donor with good intentions, a monk should accept this as long as it is pure in these three respects. To refuse the offering would deprive the donor of the positive karma that giving provides. Moreover, it would create a certain conceit in the monks who would now pick and choose what food to eat. The Buddha did state however that the donor does generate bad karma for himself by killing an animal. In Theravada Buddhist countries, most people do eat meat. However
While there is no mention of Buddha endorsing or repudiating vegetarianism in surviving portions of Pali Tripitaka and no Mahayana sutras explicitly declare that meat eating violates the first precept, certain Mahayana sutras vigorously and unreservedly denounce the eating of meat, mainly on the ground that such an act violates the bodhisattva’s compassion. The sutras which inveigh against meat-eating include the Mahayana version of the Nirvana Sutra, the Shurangama Sutra, the Brahmajala Sutra, the Angulimaliya Sutra, the Mahamegha Sutra, and the Lankavatara Sutra, as well as the Buddha’s comments on the negative karmic effects of meat consumption in the Karma Sutra. In the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra, which presents itself as the final elucidatory and definitive Mahayana teachings of the Buddha on the very eve of his death, the Buddha states that “the eating of meat extinguishes the seed of Great Kindness”, adding that all and every kind of meat and fish consumption (even of animals found already dead) is prohibited by him. He specifically rejects the idea that monks who go out begging and receive meat from a donor should eat it: “. . . it should be rejected . . . I say that even meat, fish, game, dried hooves and scraps of meat left over by others constitutes an infraction . . . I teach the harm arising from meat-eating.” The Buddha also predicts in this sutra that later monks will “hold spurious writings to be the authentic Dharma” and will concoct their own sutras and lyingly claim that the Buddha allows the eating of meat, whereas in fact he says he does not. A long passage in the Lankavatara Sutra shows the Buddha speaking out very forcefully against meat consumption and unequivocally in favor of vegetarianism, since the eating of the flesh of fellow sentient beings is said by him to be incompatible with the compassion that a Bodhisattva should strive to cultivate. In several other Mahayana scriptures, too (e.g., the Mahayana jatakas), the Buddha is seen clearly to indicate that meat-eating is undesirable and karmically unwholesome.
Forests and jungles represented the ideal dwelling place for early Buddhists, and many texts praise the forest life as being helpful to meditation. Monks are not allowed to cut down trees as per the Vinaya, and the planting of trees and plants is seen as karmically fruitful. Because of this, Buddhist monasteries are often small nature preserves within the modernizing states in East Asia. The species ficus religiosa is seen as auspicious, because it is the same kind of tree that the Buddha gained enlightenment under.
In Mahayana Buddhism, some teachings hold that trees and plants have Buddha nature. Kukai held that plants and trees, along with rocks and everything else, were manifestations of the ‘One Mind’ of Vairocana and Dogen held that plant life was Buddha nature.
In pre-modern times, environmental issues were not widely discussed, though Ashoka banned the burning of forests and promoted the planting of trees in his edicts. Bhikkhu Bodhi, an American Theravada monk, has been outspoken about the issue of environmental crisis. Bodhi holds that the root of the current ecological crisis is the belief that increased production and consumption to satisfy our material and sensual desires leads to well being. The subjugation of nature is directly opposed to the Buddhist view of non-harming and dwelling in nature. Buddhist activists such as Ajahn Pongsak in Thailand and the Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement have worked for reforestation and environmental protection. The Dalai Lama also professes the close relationship of human beings and nature, saying that since humans come from nature, there is no point in going against it. He advocates that a clean environment should be considered a basic human right and that it is our responsibility as humans to ensure that we do all we can to pass on a healthy world to those who come after us.
In pre-Buddhist Indian religion, women were seen as inferior and subservient to men. Buddha’s teachings tended to promote gender equality as the Buddha held that women had the same spiritual capacities as men did. According to Isaline Blew Horner, women in Buddhist India: “commanded more respect and ranked as individuals. They enjoyed more independence, and a wider liberty to guide and follow their own lives.” Buddha gave the same teachings to both sexes, praised various female lay disciples for their wisdom and allowed women to become monastics (Bhikkhunis) at a time when this was seen as scandalous in India, where men dominated the spiritual professions. The two chief female disciples of the Buddha were Khema and Uppalavanna. The Buddha taught that women had the same soteriological potential as men, and that gender had no influence on one’s ability to advance spiritually to nirvana. In the early Buddhist texts, female enlightened Arhats are common. Buddhist nuns are however bound by an extra 8 precepts not applicable to Buddhist monks called the The Eight Garudhammas. The authenticity of these rules is highly contested; they were supposedly added to the (bhikkhunis) Vinaya “to allow more acceptance” of a monastic Order for women, during the Buddha’s time but can be interpreted as a form of gender discrimination. Alan Sponberg argues that the early Buddhist sangha sought social acceptance through ‘institutional androcentrism’ as it was dependent on material support from lay society bogner jackets. Because of this Sponberg concludes: “For all its commitment to inclusiveness at the doctrinal level, institutional Buddhism was not able to (or saw no reason to) challenge prevailing attitudes about gender roles in society.” The pre-Mahayana texts also state that while women can become Arhats, they cannot become a Samyaksambuddha (a Buddha who discovers the path by himself), Chakravartins (Wheel turning king), a Ruler of heaven, a Mara devil or a Brahama god.
The Therigatha is a collection of poems from elder Buddhist nuns, and one of the earliest texts of women’s literature. Another important text is the Therī-Apadāna, which collects the biographies of eminent nuns. One such verses are those of the nun Soma, who was tempted by Mara when traveling in the woods. Mara states that women are not intelligent enough to attain enlightenment, Soma replies with a verse which indicates the insignificance of gender to spirituality:
In Mahayana Buddhism, Bodhisattvas such as Tara and Guanyin are very popular female deities. Some Buddhist Tantric texts include female consorts for each heavenly Buddha or Bodhisattva. In these Tantric couples, the female symbolizes wisdom (prajna) and the male symbolizes skillful means (upaya). The union of these two qualities is often depicted as sexual union, known as yab-yum (father-mother).
In East Asia, the idea of Buddha nature being inherent in all beings is taken to mean that, spiritually at least, the sexes are equal, and this is expressed by the Lion’s Roar of Queen Srimala sutra. Based on this ideal of Buddha nature, the Chinese Chan (Zen) school emphasized the equality of the sexes. Dahui Zonggao (1089–1163) of the Chinese Linji school said of women in Buddhism: “For mastering the truth, it does not matter whether one is male or female, noble or base.” The Japanese founder of Soto Zen, Dogen wrote: “If you wish to hear the Dharma and put an end to pain and turmoil, forget about such things as male and female. As long as delusions have not yet been eliminated, neither men nor women have eliminated them; when they are all eliminated and true reality is experienced, there is no distinction of male and female.”
The attitude of Buddhists towards gender has been varied throughout history as it has been influenced by each particular culture and belief system such as Confucianism (which sees women as subservient) and Hinduism. The Theravadin commentator Buddhaghosa (5th century CE) for example, seems to have been influenced by his Brahmin background in stating that rebirth as a male is higher than rebirth as a female. Some Mahayana sutras such as the ‘Sutra on Changing the Female Sex’ and the ‘Questions of the Daughter Pure Faith’ also echo this idea. For various historical and cultural reasons such as wars and invasions, the orders of ordained Buddhist nuns disappeared or was never introduced in Southeast Asia and Tibet, though they slowly started being reintroduced by nuns such as Ayya Khema, Dhammananda Bhikkhuni, Tenzin Palmo and Thubten Chodron. Until very recently, China, Taiwan and Korea were the only places where fully ordained bhiksuni lineages still existed. An international conference of Buddhist nuns was held on February 1987 at Bodh Gaya and saw the formation of ‘Sakyadhita’ (Daughters of the Buddha) the International Association of Buddhist Women which focuses on helping Buddhist nuns throughout the world.
The Buddha placed much importance on the cultivation of good will and compassion towards one’s parents, spouse, friends and all other beings. Buddhism strongly values harmony in the family and community. Keeping the five precepts and having a generous attitude (Dana) is seen as the foundation for this harmony. An important text, seen as the lay people’s Vinaya (code of conduct) is the Sigalovada Sutta which outlines wrong action and warns against the squandering of wealth. The Sigalovada Sutta outlines how a virtuous person “worships the six directions” which are parents (East), teachers (South), wife (West), and friends and colleagues (North), and the two vertical directions as: ascetics and Brahmins (Up) and the Servants (Down). The text elaborates on how to respect and support them, and how in turn the Six will return the kindness and support. The relationships are based on reciprocation, and it is understood one has no right to expect behavior from others unless one also performs good acts in their favor.
Parents for example, are to be respected and supported with the understanding that they are to have provided care and affection to oneself. In marriage, the sutta states that a householder should treat their wife by “being courteous to her, by not despising her, by being faithful to her, by handing over authority to her, by providing her with adornments.” while in return the wife “performs her duties well, she is hospitable to relations and attendants, she is faithful, she protects what he brings, she is skilled and industrious in discharging her duties.” The Buddha also stated that a wife and husband are to be each other’s best friend (parama sakha). While monogamy is the predominant model for marriage, Buddhist societies have also practiced and accepted polygamy and polyandry. Buddhism sees marriage not as sacred but as a secular partnership and hence has no issue with divorce.
The Third (or sometimes Fourth) of the Five Precepts of Buddhism states that one is to refrain from “sexual misconduct”, which has various interpretations, but generally entails any sexual conduct which is harmful to others, such as rape, molestation and often adultery, although this depends on the local marriage and relationship customs. Buddhist monks and nuns of most traditions are not only expected to refrain from all sexual activity but also take vows of celibacy.
Among the Buddhist traditions there is a vast diversity of opinion about homosexuality, and in interpreting the precedents which define “sexual misconduct” generally. Though there is no explicit condemnation of homosexuality in Buddhist sutras, be it Theravada, Mahayana or Mantrayana cheap soccer jacket, societal and community attitudes and the historical view of practitioners have established precedents. Some sangha equate homosexuality with scriptural sexual misconduct prohibited by the Five Precepts. Other sangha hold that if sexuality is compassionate and/or consensual and does not contravene vows, then there is no karmic infraction, irrespective of whether it is same-sex or not. Buddhist communities in Western states as well as in Japan generally tend to be accepting of homosexuality. In Japan, homosexual relations among Buddhist samurai and clergy were actually quite common. Male homosexuality between clergy was especially common in the Tantric Shingon school.
Buddhaghosa, Shantideva and Gampopa all wrote that homosexuality was immoral, while other Buddhist texts such as the Abhidharma-kosa and the Jataka tales make no mention of homosexuality in this regard. According to Jose Ignacio Cabezon, Buddhist cultures’ attitudes towards homosexuality have generally been neutral.
While both men and women can ordained, hermaphrodites are not allowed by the Vinaya. According to the ancient texts this is because of the possibility that they will seduce monks or nuns. The Vinaya also prevents pandakas from becoming monastics, which have been defined as “without testicles” and generally referred to those who lacked the normal (usually physical) characteristics of maleness (in some cases it refers to women who lack the normal characteristics of femaleness). This rule was established by the Buddha after a pandaka monk broke the Vinaya precepts by having relations with others. Therefore, it seems that pandakas were initially allowed into the Sangha. Later Buddhist texts like the Milinda Panha and the Abhidharma-kosa see pandakas as being spiritually hindered by their sexuality and mental defilements.
Buddha’s teachings to laypeople included advice on how to make their living and how to use their wealth. Right livelihood is an element of the Noble Eightfold Path, and generally refers to making one’s living without killing, being complicit in the suffering of other beings (by selling weapons, poison, alcohol or flesh) or through lying, stealing or deceit (advertising which deceives others Free People 2016, for example). The Sigalovada Sutta states that a master should look after servants and employees by: “(1) by assigning them work according to their ability, (2) by supplying them with food and with wages, (3) by tending them in sickness, (4) by sharing with them any delicacies, (5) by granting them leave at times” (Digha Nikaya 31). Early Buddhist texts see success in work as aided by one’s spiritual and moral qualities.
In the Adiya Sutta the Buddha also outlined several ways in which people could put their ‘righteously gained’ wealth to use:
The Buddha placed much emphasis on the virtue of giving and sharing, and hence the practice of donating and charity are central to Buddhist economic ethics. Even the poor are encouraged to share, because this brings about greater spiritual wealth: “If beings knew, as I know, the results of giving & sharing, they would not eat without having given, nor would the stain of selfishness overcome their minds. Even if it were their last bite, their last mouthful, they would not eat without having shared, if there were someone to receive their gift.” The modern growth of Engaged Buddhism has seen an emphasis on social work and charity. Buddhist aid and activist organizations include Buddhist Global Relief, Lotus Outreach, Buddhist Peace Fellowship, Piyarra Kutta, International Network of Engaged Buddhists, The Tzu Chi Foundation, Nonviolent Peaceforce, and Zen Peacemakers.
Buddhist texts promote the building of public works which benefit the community and stories of Buddhist Kings like Ashoka are used as an example of lay people who promoted the public welfare by building hospitals and parks for the people. The Buddha’s chief lay disciple, the rich merchant Anathapindika (‘Feeder of the Poor’) is also another example of a virtuous layperson who donated much of his wealth for the benefit of others and was thus known as the “foremost disciple in generosity”. Early Buddhist texts do not disparage merchants and trade, but instead promote enterprise as long as it is done ethically and leads to the well being of the community. The gold standard for rulers in Buddhism is the ideal wheel turning king, the Chakravartin. A Chakravartin is said to rule justly, giving to the needy and combating poverty so as to prevent social unrest. A Chakravartin does not fight wars for gain but only in defense of the kingdom, he accepts immigrants and refugees, and builds hospitals, parks, hostels, wells, canals and rest houses for the people and animals. Mahayana Buddhism maintains that lay Bodhisattvas should engage in social welfare activities for the good and safety of others. In the lands of Southern Buddhism, Buddhist monasteries often became places were the poor, destitute, orphaned, elderly can take shelter. Monasteries often provided education and took care of the sick, and therefore are also centers of social welfare for the poor.
Robert Thurman, in his discussion of Nagarjuna’s Precious Garland Ratnavali sees the Mahayana Buddhist tradition as politically supporting ‘a welfare state …a rule of compassionate socialism’. Prominent Buddhist socialists include the 14th Dalai Lama, Buddhadasa, B. R. Ambedkar, U Nu, Girō Seno’o and Lin Qiuwu. Others such as Neville Karunatilake, E. F. Schumacher, Padmasiri De Silva, Prayudh Payutto and Sulak Sivaraksa have promoted a Buddhist economics that does not necessarily define itself as socialist but still offers a critique of modern consumer capitalism. E. F. Schumacher in his “Buddhist economics” (1973) wrote: “Buddhist economics must be very different from the economics of modern materialism, since the Buddhist sees the essence of civilisation not in a multiplication of human wants but in the purification of human character.”
While modern economics seeks to satisfy human desires, Buddhism seeks to reduce our desires and hence Buddhist economics would tend to promote a sense of Anti-consumerism and Simple living. In his Buddhist Economics: A Middle Way for the Market Place, Prayudh Payutto writes that consumption is only a means to an end which is ‘development of human potential’ and ‘well being within the individual, within society and within the environment’. From a Buddhist perspective then, ‘Right consumption’ is based on well being while ‘wrong consumption’ is the need to ‘satisfy the desire for pleasing sensations or ego-gratification’. Similarly, Sulak Sivaraksa argues that “the religion of consumerism emphasizes greed, hatred and delusion” which causes anxiety and that this must be countered with an ethic of satisfaction Modern attempts to practice Buddhist economics can be seen in the Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement movement and in the Gross National Happiness economics of Bhutan.
While Buddhism does not see anything wrong with wealth gained ethically, it does see greed and craving for riches as negative, and praises contentment as ‘the greatest wealth’. Poverty and debt are seen as causes of suffering, immorality and social unrest if they prevent one from having basic necessities and peace of mind. For laypeople, Buddhism promotes the middle way between a life of poverty and a materialistic or consumerist life in which one is always seeking to enrich oneself and to buy more things. For Buddhist laypersons then, to be Buddhist does not mean to reject all material things, but, according to Sizemore and Swearer: “it specifies an attitude to be cultivated and expressed in whatever material condition one finds oneself. To be non-attached is to possess and use material things but not to be possessed or used by them. Therefore, the idea of non-attachment applies all across Buddhist society, to laymen and monk alike.”

Ruki sound law

The ruki sound law, also known as the ruki rule or iurk rule, refers to a historical sound change that took place in the satem branches of the Indo-European language family, namely in Balto-Slavic, Albanian, Armenian, and Indo-Iranian. According to this sound law, an original *s changed to *š (a sound similar to English “sh”) after the consonants *r, *k, *g, and the semi-vowels *w (*u̯) and *y (*i̯):
Specifically, the initial stage involves the retraction of the coronal sibilant *s after semi-vowels, *r, or a velar consonant *k or *g (developed from earlier *k, *g, *gʰ). In the second stage, leveling of the sibilant system resulted in retroflexion (cf. Sanskrit ष [ʂ] and Proto-Slavic), and later retraction to velar *x in Slavic and some Middle Indian languages. This rule was first formulated by Holger Pedersen, and it is sometimes known as Pedersen’s law, although this term is also applied to another sound law concerning stress in the Balto-Slavic languages.
The name “ruki” comes from the sounds (r, u̯, K

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, i̯) which triggered the sound change.

The rule was originally formulated for Sanskrit. It was later proposed to be valid in some degree for all satem languages bogner jacket, and exceptionless for the Indo-Iranian languages. In Baltic and Albanian, it is limited or affected to a greater or lesser extent by other sound laws. Nevertheless, it has to have been universal in these branches of the IE languages, and the lack of Slavic reflexes before consonants is due rather to their merger with the reflexes of other sibilants.
In Slavic languages the process is regular before a vowel, but it does not take place before consonants. The final result is the voiceless velar fricative *x, which is even more retracted than the *š. This velar fricative changed back into *š before a front vowel or the palatal approximant *y mackage sale.
In Indo-Iranian *r and *l merged, and the change worked even after the new sound. This has been cited as evidence by many scholars as an argument for the later influence of Iranian languages on Proto-Slavic. There are obvious drawbacks in the theory jerseys outlet. First, the two sounds must have been very close (r/l), so that both could have triggered the change in Indo-Iranian. Second, there are no real examples of this change working in Slavic, and it is also doubtful that only this change (ruki) and no other such change of sibilants (e.g. *s > h) was borrowed into Slavic.

Maude Farris-Luse

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Maude Farris-Luse, (21 janvier 1887 – 18 mars 2002) robes ted baker, connue aussi sous le nom Maud Luse, est une supercentenaire américaine. Selon le Livre Guinness des records, elle est restée la personne la plus vieille du monde de juin 2001 jusqu’à sa mort neuf mois plus tard, à l’âge de 115 ans et 56 jours.
Elle était née à Morley, dans le Michigan, le 21 janvier 1887. En 1903, avec l’autorisation de sa mère, elle épousa Jason Farris, paysan et ouvrier. Elle avait 16 ans et lui 23. Ils vécurent d’abord à Angola, dans l’Indiana avant de s’installer à Coldwater, dans le Michigan, en 1923. Ils eurent sept enfants . C’est à Angola qu’elle aurait vu pour la première fois une automobile. Selon AP lancel sac à main, elle travailla au fil des ans comme employée aux écritures dans une usine, femme de chambre dans un hôtel, boulangère et cuisinière dans un restaurant, avant de prendre sa retraite à 70 ans.
Jason Farris mourut à l’âge de 72 ans en 1951, alors que Maude en avait 64

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. Son second mariage, avec Walter Luse, ne dura que trois ans, interrompu par la mort de ce dernier. Bien que son prénom fût «Maude», dans ses dernières années elle l’orthographiait “Maud”. C’est ainsi par exemple qu’on le lit dans The Jackson Citizen Patriot.
En 1997, à l’âge de 110 ans, elle écrivit une lettre à Jeanne Calment, la plus vieille personne dont l’âge ait été authentifié. Après la mort de Marie Brémont, le 6 juin 2001, les rédacteurs du Guinness déclarèrent le 23 juin, que c’était elle qui était désormais la personne du monde la plus âgée. Son acte de naissance ayant disparu avec le temps, ils authentifièrent son âge en utilisant les dossiers du Bureau de recensement américain et l’autorisation donnée en 1903 pour son mariage.
Le 28 mars 2002, elle mourut d’une pneumonie à l’âge de 115 ans,, ayant survécu à six de ses sept enfants, lesquels semblent avoir hérité de la longévité de son mari plutôt que de la sienne, puisque l’ainé mourut à 82 ans et cinq autres à 77 ans ou moins. Pour son cent quinzième anniversaire en janvier, disent ses proches bogner france 2016, elle ne pouvait plus les voir ni les entendre, ni comprendre ce qui arrivait, mais elle semblait contente d’avoir de la visite.


L’aquavit est une eau-de-vie de céréale ou de pomme de terre parfumée avec différentes substances aromatiques (cumin, anis, fenouil, cannelle lancel sac à main 2016, orange amère, etc.). L’Aquavit, fabriquée et consommée dans les pays scandinaves, tire son nom du latin « aqua vitae » qui signifie « eau-de-vie ».

Selon la réglementation communautaire européenne, elle est fabriquée à partir d’alcool neutre d’origine agricole sac lancel, redistillé avec des grains de carvi et/ou d’aneth timberland en ligne, et aromatisé par un distillat d’herbes ou d’épices. Hormis le carvi et/ou l’aneth, les épices utilisées comprennent entre autres : anis, coriandre, etc. L’aquavit a habituellement une teinte jaune mais peut cependant avoir des teintes de transparent à brun clair.
La plus ancienne référence à l’aquavit se trouve dans une lettre de 1531 du seigneur danois de Bergenshus

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, Eske Bille, adressée à Olav Engelbretsson, le dernier archevêque de Norvège.
Les fabricants les plus importants sont Gilde et Løiten’s Linie en Norvège, Aalborg au Danemark et O. P. Anderson en Suède. Si chaque marque a son caractère, l’aquavit norvégien est celui qui est le plus parfumé et le plus coloré.
Jacques Higelin fait une référence à l’aquavit dans sa chanson « L’hiver au lit à Liverpool ».
Serge Gainsbourg fait une référence explicite à l’aquavit dans sa chanson « Glass Securit », sur son dernier album, You’re Under Arrest, paru en 1987.
Ingrid Chauvin en boit dans le pilote du feuilleton Femmes de loi.
Bertolt Brecht en fait la boisson favorite de Puntila dans sa pièce Maître Puntila et son valet Matti. Elle rend Puntila plus humain et plus tolérant.
Homer Simpson fait l’essai de l’eau-de-vie dans une fête accompagné de Norvégiens pendant que ces derniers viennent travailler à Springfield, tirée du 21e épisode de la saison 20 des Simpson.


Ein Packraft (aus dem Amerikanischen) ist ein leichtes aber stabiles Schlauchboot, das durch sein geringes Gewicht und Packmaß auch beim Wandern, Fahrradfahren oder im öffentlichen Verkehr mitgeführt werden kann. Synonyme sind die Bezeichnungen Trailboat, Rucksackboot, Taschenboot oder Ultraleichtschlauchboot. Packrafts werden typischerweise als Einer mit Doppelpaddel gefahren.

Die Kategorisierung als Raft ist streng genommen technisch inkorrekt. Ein Raft, also Floß, unterscheidet sich vom Boot durch den fehlenden Rumpf und erhält seinen Auftrieb nach dem archimedischen Prinzip nicht durch die Verdrängung der nach oben offenen Hohlform, sondern durch das schwimmfähige Material selbst. Es hat typischerweise einen flachen Boden Bogner Online Shop. Obwohl grundsätzlich unsinkbar, sind Packrafts nicht als Selbstlenzer gebaut, die Verdrängung und der Auftrieb finden auch durch die geschlossene Form statt.
Die Kategorisierung als Raft ist auch anwendungsseitig irreführend, da insbesondere im deutschen Sprachraum das Raft mit Rafting und somit eher mit schwerem Wildwasser im Mehrpersoneneinsatz assoziiert wird. Packrafts sind jedoch keine reinen Wildwasserkanus, sondern Reiseboote, welche auf Flüssen, Fjorden, Buchten und Bergseen eingesetzt werden. Sie lassen sich, mit einem Spritzschutz versehen, bedingt auch auf schwererem Wildwasser (IV+) fahren, dies jedoch nicht im Mehrpersoneneinsatz.
Packrafts grenzen sich von Badebooten oder PVC-Booten durch höhere Haltbarkeit durch widerstandsfähigeres Material und von erheblich schwereren Schlauchkanadiern aufgrund des geringen Gewichts mit rund 3 kg ab.
Moderne Packrafts bestehen aus urethan-beschichtetem Nylon, das aufgrund einer speziellen Oberflächenbehandlung sehr abriebfest ist. Ein heute gebräuchliches Packraft besteht aus einem äußeren rundum führenden Schlauch in Einkammerbauweise und einer losen (nicht aufblasbaren) Bodenwanne. Weitere Konstruktionsmerkmale sind eine optionale Spritzdecke, ein hochgezogener Bug und der aufblasbare Sitz. Die erhältlichen Größen variieren um ca. 20 cm in der Länge und sind auf die Beinlänge des Fahrers abgestimmt. Das Boot erhält beim Aufrüsten das Grundvolumen durch den Einsatz eines Blasesacks aus leichtem Nylon. Der endgültige Innendruck wird per Aufblasen mit dem Mund erreicht. Der beschränkte Luftdruck ist dabei beabsichtigt; mechanische Beanspruchungen werden so gemildert. Die Aussteifung des Fahrzeuges wird über den passend innerhalb des umlaufenden Schlauchwulstes befindlichen Körper des Benutzers erreicht, indem Körperspannung zwischen Bug und Heck ausgeübt wird. Insofern ist auch die kurze, an die Größe des Benutzers angepasste Baulänge (neben der Gewichtsreduktion) beabsichtigt. Dieses flexible „Federsystem“ wird jedoch erst bei wuchtigem Wildwasser von Bedeutung 2016 Puma Fußballschuhe Steckdose.
Die Entwicklung von Packrafts geht auf die Geschichte des Schlauchbootes zurück. Den Grundstein legte dabei im Jahr 1913 der Berliner Hermann Meyer Adidas Fußball Jerseys geben Verschiffen frei 2016, welcher “ein beidseitig benutzbares, aufblasbares Wasserfahrzeug” patentrechtlich schützen ließ. Auch wenn dies noch nicht den Portabilitätskriterien von heute entsprach, war es doch ein transportables Wasserfahrzeug. Die Weiterentwicklung zu kompakten Formen führte schließlich zum Einsatz in der zivilen Luftfahrt (Rettungsboot) und zur militärischen Nutzung (Überlebensboot). Der erstmalige Einsatz solcher Geräte im Hobby- und Freizeitbereich ist schwer zu bestimmen. Gesichert gilt die Nutzung nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg in Nordamerika und Australien. Als erste dokumentierte Nutzung gilt Dick Griffiths Trip im Copper Canyon in Mexico 1952, aus dem sich der Packrafting-Gedanke entwickelte, sich aber erst in den 1980er Jahren mit ersten Produkten aus dem Freizeitbereich von Sherpa und Curtis Design verbreitete. Diese stellten erstmals Boote aus urethan-beschichtetem Nylon her, bewarben sie aber für Jäger und Angler. Dennoch wurden sie seit 1982 regulär beim Wilderness Classic Rennen in Alaska eingesetzt. Die 1990er Jahre brachten im amerikanischen Norden ausgedehnte Touren, auch in Kombination mit Mountain Bikes (Dial, Roman: National Geografic Magazine 5/97).
Parallel dazu finden sich in den 80er Jahren in der Produktion der DDR verblüffend ähnliche Konstruktionen moderner Packrafts (Typenbezeichnung B73). Packmaß und Gewicht sowie die heutige Einsatzfähigkeit sprechen für äquivalente Portabilität und Robustheit.
Die vermehrte Verwendung als Wassersportgerät erfolgte nach dem Jahr 2000 durch das Aufkommen neuer Materialien, Verarbeitungen und Konstruktionen (Spritzdecke und Passform). Insbesondere die letzten Jahre brachten eine Wende im Verständnis für diese Boote. Dazu beigetragen hat der renommierte „Backpackers Best Award“ sowie der „Boaters Best Pick“ im amerikanischen Paddlers Magazine im Jahr 2005.
Auffällig ist jedoch die geringe Resonanz in Europa Bogner Jacken Sale. Dies könnte dem Fehlen ausgeprägter Wildnisgebiete geschuldet sein. Der originäre Packrafting-Gedanke hat sich dort entwickelt, wo der Bootstransport einerseits aufwändig ist und man andererseits ohne Boot nicht weit kommt, vornehmlich in Alaska.
Packrafts sind ursprünglich Wildnisboote zum Trekking in gemischtem Terrain. Die Abstufung des Anteils der Nutzung auf dem Wasser ist fließend. Es kann als reines Backup oder nur zur Überwindung von Gewässern dienen, es kann einen ausgewogenen Anteil besitzen (klassisches Packrafting) oder den überwiegenden Teil ausmachen (Aufstieg zum Einstieg) bzw. als reines Wildwasserkanu genutzt werden.
Mit dem Fehlen eines „Backcountry“ dürfte es nach dieser Sichtweise keine Anwendung in (Mittel-) Europa geben. Mit einem guten Angebot an öffentlichem Nah- und Fernverkehr eröffnen Packrafts jedoch hier die Möglichkeit an einem wahren Mix unterschiedlicher Transporte. Charakteristisch für den Einsatz ist die Portabilität, Vielseitigkeit und Verlässlichkeit. Die Kombination aus Wandern bzw. Trekking und Gewässerbefahrung ist der klassische Einsatzbereich.
Zur Bootsausrüstung gehört ein teilbares und in Länge und Schränkung verstellbares Paddel. Je nach Anwendung kommen Helm, Schwimmweste und Kälteschutzkleidung hinzu.
Funktion ist der Transport eines Wasserfahrzeug auch über ausgedehnte Entfernungen in schwierigem Gelände im Rucksack zusammen mit der weiteren Trekkingausrüstung aus Zelt und Verpflegung.

Dan Dobbek

Daniel John Dobbek (born December 6 bogner ski jackets 2016, 1934) is an American former professional baseball player. An outfielder, he played one full season and parts of two others for the Washington Senators/Minnesota Twins franchise of Major League Baseball; his only full MLB campaign, 1960, was as a member of the last “original” Washington Senators team that moved to the Twin Cities for 1961. Dobbek appeared in 110 games for that team, including 58 in center field, batting .218 in 288 at bats with 10 home runs and 30 runs batted in.
Dan Dobbek attended Western Michigan University and signed with Washington in 1955. He threw right-handed, batted left-handed, and was listed at 6 feet (1

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.8 m) and 195 pounds (88 kg). His first professional season

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, with the 1956 Hobbs Sports of the Class B Southwestern League, was his finest: he batted .340 with 23 home runs in 129 games. He missed the 1957–1958 seasons due to military service.
He was recalled from the Double-A Chattanooga Lookouts — after hitting 23 home runs in the Southern Association — in September 1959. But while Dobbek showed some power during his MLB service, he batted only .208 in 198 games and 433 at bats, including a lowly .168 for the Twins in their 1961 debut season in Minnesota. He spent part of that season with the Twins’ Triple-A Syracuse Chiefs affiliate

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, then was traded in a waiver deal to the Cincinnati Reds for catcher Jerry Zimmerman in January 1962.
In between, Dobbek played for the Elefantes de Cienfuegos of the Cuban Winter League and was a member of the 1960 Caribbean Series champion team.
He spent the remainder of his playing career in the minors, retiring after the 1963 season.

2014–15 Eastern Michigan Eagles men’s basketball team

The 2014–15 Eastern Michigan Eagles men’s basketball team represented Eastern Michigan University during the 2014–15 NCAA Division I men’s basketball season

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. The Eagles christian louboutin shoes, led by fourth year head coach Rob Murphy, played their home games at the Eastern Michigan University Convocation Center, as members of the West Division of the Mid-American Conference. They finished the season 21–14 Bogner Jas sale, 8–10 in MAC play to finish in a tie for fourth place in the West Division. They advanced to the quarterfinals of the MAC Tournament where they lost to Toledo. They were invited to the College Basketball Invitational where they lost in the first round to Louisiana–Monroe Cheongsam Dress.

Two players transferred away from EMU after the 2013/14 season, Jalen Ross will be going to Hartford & Darrell Combs to IUPUI. Former EMU standout and NBA player Carl Thomas was hired by Jackson College as Head Coach of the men’s basketball team.
Senior forward Karrington Ward was named the 15th-best defensive player in the country according to

Team Highs
Opponent Lows
MAC Statistic Leaders
MAC Player of the Week
Academic All MAC
3rd Team All-MAC
MAC Honorable Mention

Lorena Xtravaganza

Lorena Escalera (October 14, 1986 – May 12, 2012), known professionally as Lorena Xtravaganza, was an American transgender performer known for her impersonations of Beyonce and Jennifer Lopez. She was given the last name, Xtravaganza for her membership of a celebrated group called The House of Xtravaganza.
Lorena posthumously rose to mainstream attention after her murder in 2012. She was found unconscious and unresponsive in her Bushwick apartment. Escalera’s apartment was set on fire after two men she had brought into her home had strangled then suffocated her. It is believed that she was working as an online escort.

Lorena was born in Puerto Rico; moving to New York City when she turned eighteen-years-old. Escalera had been working as a make-up artist in Puerto Rico but wanted to come to New York to broaden her career as a performer and model. Once arriving, Lorena joined the renowned performance house mulberry sale, The House of Xtravaganza, which were featured in the popular 1990 documentary, Paris is Burning. She began walking balls and competing for prizes as an Xtravaganza; picking up the name La’reina Xtravaganza from fans. Xtravaganza also had a career as a model; although it is not known to the public what she modeled for Cheap Adidas Soccer Jerseys Outlet.
On May 11, 2012 she brought two men to her apartment, at 43 Furman Avenue in Bushwick, the police said. At about 4 a.m., a fire broke out in the apartment. A passer-by ran into the four-story building and began banging on doors, according to a neighbor. In the ensuing chaos, everyone seemed to emerge from the building – except Lorena Maje High Quality. Firefighters arrived, as did officers from the 83rd Precinct. When the blaze was extinguished, at 4:37 a.m. tory burch bags, Lorena was discovered, “unconscious and unresponsive” and paramedics declared her dead at the scene. A fire department spokesman said that firefighters using thermal imaging equipment found the body on a bed.
Though the fire has been deemed suspicious, investigators have found no evidence of accelerant. The police were still awaiting a determination on the cause from fire marshals. Lorena’s roommates said that when work was done on the electrical system, they created holes around the electrical outlets and filled them with cardboard. The whereabouts of Lorena’s two visitors were not known, though a neighbor said he was told by the passer-by that two men were arguing in front of the building at the time of the fire.
The New York Times article covering Lorena’s death was criticized by GLAAD for being “trans exploitation”.