Jared Polis

Jared Schutz Polis (/ˈpɔːlɪs/; born May 12, 1975) is an American politician, entrepreneur, and philanthropist serving as the U.S. Representative for Colorado’s 2nd congressional district since 2009. A Democrat, he is also a former member of the Colorado State Board of Education. He is among the wealthiest members of Congress, with a personal net worth estimated at nearly $400 million.

In June 2017 Polis announced his candidacy for Governor of Colorado in the 2018 election. He won the primary election held on June 26, 2018 and is now the Democratic nominee for governor. He selected former legislator Dianne Primavera as his lieutenant governor running mate.

Polis is the son of Stephen Schutz and Susan Polis Schutz, founders of greeting card and book publisher Blue Mountain Arts. He was born at Boulder Community Hospital in Boulder, CO in 1975. He lived in San Diego, CA during his high school years, and graduated from La Jolla Country Day School in three years with multiple honors. He also received a Bachelor of Arts in politics from Princeton University. In 2000 he legally changed his name to use his mother’s surname, in part to raise awareness for a fund-raiser and because he simply “liked it better”.

Polis co-founded American Information Systems (AIS), Inc while still in college. AIS was an internet access provider and was sold in 1998. In 1996, he co-founded a free electronic greeting card website, Bluemountain.com, which was sold to Excite@Home in 1999 for $430 million in stock and $350 million in cash.

In February 1998, Polis founded ProFlowers, an online florist, in La Jolla, California. In December of that year, economist Dr. Arthur Laffer began advising Polis and joined ProFlowers as a Director. ProFlowers, later renamed Provide Commerce, Inc., went public on NASDAQ as PRVD on December 17, 2003. In 2005, Provide Commerce was acquired by media conglomerate Liberty Media Corporation for $477 million.

In 2000, Polis founded the Jared Polis Foundation, whose mission is to “create opportunities for success by supporting educators, increasing access to technology, and strengthening our community.” Its main programs are the annual “Teacher Recognition Awards”; the “Community Computer Connection” program, which refurbishes and donates more than 3,500 computers a year to schools and non-profit organizations; and the semi-annual “Jared Polis Foundation Education Report”. Polis has also founded two charter schools, one with multiple campuses across three states and a post-secondary school, the New America College, for at-risk students. In 2004, he established the charter school “New America School,” which is a high school that primarily serves older immigrant youth ages 16–21 and has three campuses in Colorado, in the Denver Metro area, two campuses in New Mexico and a campus opening in Las Vegas, Nevada in 2013. In 2005, Polis co-founded with Urban Peak the charter school Academy of Urban Learning in Denver to help youth at risk of becoming homeless or living in unstable living conditions.

Polis was named Outstanding Philanthropist for the 2006 National Philanthropy Day in Colorado. He is a recipient of many awards, including the Boulder Daily Camera’s 2007 Pacesetter Award in Education; the Kauffman Foundation Community Award; the Denver consul general of Mexico “Ohtli”; the Martin Luther King, Jr. Colorado Humanitarian Award; and the Anti-Defamation League’s inaugural Boulder Community Builder Award.

At the time of his election, Polis had founded a number of companies and is one of the 10 richest members of the United States Congress.

Together with Pat Stryker, Rutt Bridges, and Tim Gill, Polis is one of the four wealthy Coloradans sometimes called the “Gang of Four” who donate to liberal causes.

In 2000, Polis was elected at-large as a member of the Colorado State Board of Education and served for a single six-year term until January 2007 when the district was eliminated. His election was one of the closest in Colorado history, as he defeated incumbent Ben Alexander by 90 votes out of 1.6 million cast. Polis served as Chairman and Vice-Chairman of the Colorado State Board of Education during his term.

In 2006, Polis served as Co-chair of “Coloradans for Clean Government,” a committee that supported Amendment 41, a citizen-initiated ballot measure to ban gifts by registered lobbyists to government officials, establish a $50 annual restriction on gift-giving from non-lobbyists, establish a two-year cooling-off period before former state legislators and statewide elected officials can begin lobbying, and create an independent ethics commission. In November 2006, 62.3% of Colorado voters approved the “Ethics in Government” constitutional amendment.

In 2007, Polis Co-chaired the “Building for our Future” campaign that supported ballot question 3A in the Boulder Valley School District to issue $296.8 million in bonds for the improvement and modernization of aging school facilities —the largest capital construction bond issue in the district’s history and the largest school bond proposal in Colorado that year. In November 2006, 58% of Boulder Valley School District voters approved the measure.

In 2014, Polis planned to champion two ballot measures which would have limited fracking in Colorado by banning drilling near schools and homes and by empowering communities to pass their own rules. However, he dropped the divisive measures after reaching a deal with Governor John Hickenlooper which will create a task force. The absence of the initiatives is seen as a relief to vulnerable Democrats who would have had to take controversial stances on the issue.

In 2008, Polis won a heavily contested Democratic primary election, and went on to win the general election on November 4, 2008, winning 62% of the vote to succeed Mark Udall.

In 2010, Polis won 57% of the popular vote to win re-election.

In 2012, Polis ran uncontested in the Democratic primary and won a third election to Congress with 55% of popular vote.

In 2014, Polis won a fourth election to Congress with 57% of the popular vote.

In 2016, Polis won 56.9% of the popular vote to win re-election.

Polis is currently the Red to Blue program chair for the DCCC, helping recruit and raise money for Democratic candidates in competitive congressional districts. According to sources close to Polis, he has eyed a higher leadership role in the DCCC, running for Vice-Chair of the House Democratic Caucus after then-chairman Xavier Becerra was term-limited. The position ended up going to New York Congressman Joe Crowley.

For the 114th Congress, Polis serves on the following committees

The following is an incomplete list of legislation that Polis has introduced:

In 2011 Polis, along with Senator Joe Lieberman (I-CT), introduced the 2011 Race to the Top Act (H.R. 1532). The legislation authorized old provisions and some new ones including: new standards to encourage and reward states based on their implementation of comprehensive educational reforms that innovate through 4-year competitive grants that allow more funding to expand Charter schools and compensate teachers in part based on their students’ performance.

Polis has sponsored other education bills and legislation regarding students including;

Polis has also introduced the Computer Science Education Act, which helps provide job training for computing jobs, and the ACE Act, which would provide funding to improve outcomes for students in persistently low-performing schools, and to authorize school “turnaround grants.”

In 2015, during a back-and-forth exchange before the House Education and Workforce Committee’s Subcommittee on Higher Education and Workforce Training, Polis argued for schools to be able to use lower standards of evidence when deciding to expel students accused of sexual assault by stating, “If there are 10 people who have been accused, and under a reasonable likelihood standard maybe one or two did it, it seems better to get rid of all 10 people.” Shortly after the comments, Polis said that he misspoke during the subcommittee hearing and that he committed a major gaffe during the discussion. Civil liberties and conservative sources have pointed to Polis’ comments as evidence of the drive to erode due process rights with regards to answering accusations of sexual assault at U.S. colleges and universities.

Polis opposed the Iraq War saying that, “The invasion of Iraq was a colossal mistake and I opposed the war from the very beginning. Bush’s blunders, and the Democrats who gave him cover along the way, have left us without easy solutions for improving the situation.” During a congressional trip to Iraq Polis praised the “Sons of Iraq” policy, which funds former military and police officials under Saddam Hussein to lay down their arms against coalition forces, patrol neighborhoods, and fight against other Sunni insurgents. In an op-ed, he wrote, “If we had started this policy sooner after the invasion, we no doubt could have prevented loss of life. As can be expected, some of them turn out to be corrupt and attack us anyway, but most seem to be helping to keep the order. The challenge is to bring them into the fold of the new Iraqi government and a proper chain of command structure.”

In the op-ed Polis also said, “The hippie in me bemoans the fact that we defeated the Iraqi military only to help them build an even stronger one that might one day be used against children and innocents, as often is the case. When will all the killing end? Where have all the flowers gone? And they shall beat their swords into plowshares and they shall study war no more.”

Polis supports removing all troops from Afghanistan. In 2010 Polis supported a failed resolution to withdraw all troops from Afghanistan within 30 days, saying that “I don’t believe that this ongoing occupation is in our national interest,” and that, “I supported the initial action to oust the Taliban in Afghanistan, and that succeeded, The challenge we face now is a stateless menace.”

Polis also took a Congressional Delegation trip to Afghanistan, meeting with the former Afghan Interior Minister Mohammad Hanif Atmar, US military officials and Diplomats. During his meeting with Mohammed Hanif Atmar, Polis focused on the Education gap between Afghanistan and Western nations, the low literacy rate for Afghan police and military officials, and combating political corruption. Polis has criticized expanding US troops in Afghanistan, and supports putting resources in intelligence and special operations. Writing in a report after visiting Afghanistan that “We need all the high-level diplomatic support we can to master the diplomatic complexities of fighting against an enemy holed up in two countries, as well as navigating the complex regional politics.” Also adding that, “Our best estimates show there to be no more than 5,000 al-Qaeda fighters in Afghanistan and Pakistan. They operate out of areas in southern and eastern Afghanistan and on the Pakistan/Afghanistan border. Do we really need to occupy an entire country of around 30 million people to root out 5,000 enemies? I harbor a deep degree of ambivalence about the military surge. The diplomatic surge is good, increasing our covert ops and intelligence abilities focused on al-Qaeda is good, but adding tens of thousands of American troops for years doesn’t necessarily get us closer to defeating al-Qaeda.”

Polis voted in favor of the 2010 Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act expanding economic sanctions against Iran under the Iran and Libya Sanctions Act, and co-sponsored H.R. 1327; the Iran Sanctions Enabling Act of 2009, authorizing state and local governments to direct divestiture from, and prevent investment in, companies with investments of $20,000,000 or more in Iran’s energy sector.

Polis, along with Representatives Barney Frank and Tammy Baldwin, has called on the United States embassy in Iraq and former United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton to prioritize investigating the allegations of rape, torture and executions of LGBT Iraqis, saying “Such disturbing violations of human rights should not be ignored and the United States should not stand idly by while billions of taxpayer dollars are used to support their government.”

Along with the support of 35 members of the House, Polis has also called on the State Department to address violence against the LGBT community in Honduras.

While in the House, Polis has been a staunch advocate for civil liberties, saying while campaigning in 2008 that “balance must be restored between the executive and the judicial branch (through restoring Habeas corpus, and clarifying that the President does not have the Constitutional authority to alter legislation through signing statements,) and between the executive and the legislative branch (clarifying that the Fourth Amendment requires probable cause and a warrant for the government to monitor Americans).

Polis has been a vocal opponent of the PATRIOT ACT. In a letter to House Speaker John Boehner, Polis stated, “Mr. Speaker, the Patriot Act is a bill that has been plagued with abuse since it was first passed, and today’s rule is yet another example of short-circuiting the system that our Founding Fathers set up. If there were ever the need for the close supervision and congressional oversight of a law, it is a law that discusses how and under what conditions a government can spy on its own citizens.” On February 2011 Polis voted against H.R. 514, extending expiring provisions of the Patriot Act, authorizing court-approved roving wiretaps that permit surveillance on multiple phones, allowing court-approved seizure of records and property in anti-terrorism operations, and permitting surveillance against a so-called lone wolf, a non-US citizen engaged in terrorism who may not be part of a recognized terrorist group.

Polis supports an open and free internet, and has been critical of SOPA, PIPA and CISPA, saying in an interview with Forbes that; “I oppose piracy and want to see intellectual property protected because that is what fosters and rewards innovation. But SOPA won’t accomplish a meaningful reduction in piracy and causes massive collateral damage to the Internet ecosystem.” While debating SOPA on the house floor Polis said that “SOPA and PIPA directly threaten the very internet that has brought humanity great prosperity and greater peace,” and that, “Allowing the military and NSA to spy on Americans on American soil goes against every principle this country was founded on.” Polis, along with 167 other members of the house, voted against CISPA.

Polis, along with representatives Zoe Lofgren (D-CA) and Darrell Issa (R-CA), sponsored Aaron’s Law, in the wake of the suicide of computer programmer and internet activist Aaron Swartz, (the co-founder of Reddit), who was facing computer and wire fraud charges and more than 30 years in prison and fines of over $1,000,000 for violating the terms of service for illegally downloading academic journal articles from the digital library JSTOR. The proposed bill would exclude terms of service violations from the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act and from the wire fraud statute. Polis said that the charges brought on by US Attorney Carmen Ortiz were “ridiculous and trumped-up,” and that “It’s absurd that he was made a scapegoat. I would hope that this doesn’t happen to anyone else.”

Polis voted against the 2012 National Defense Authorization Act, and is against Section 1021, which has drawn controversy about implications to detention policy. After the law was signed, Polis, along with other members of the house, introduced legislation to repeal the indefinite detention provision. Though legislation has failed to pass the house, Section 1021 is now pending in the courts.

Polis has been an early critic of the War on Drugs, stating that “Just as the policy of prohibition failed nationally with alcohol – it’s now up to states and counties – I think we should do the same with marijuana.” During a June 2012 testimony of DEA Administrator Michele Leonhart before the United States House Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security and Investigations, Polis questioned whether marijuana should be classified as a schedule one drug. Polis questioned Leonhart, who refused to answer whether or not cocaine, methamphetamine and heroin posed a greater risk to someone’s health than marijuana. Polis also advocated the legalization of medical marijuana to combat prescription drug abuse.

Polis is the leading sponsor of H.R. 499, or, the Ending Federal Marijuana Prohibition Act of 2013. If passed, the act would: Decriminalize possession of cannabis at the federal level; Relinquish the Drug Enforcement Administration’s regulation of cannabis under the Controlled Substances Act, transferring its federal regulation from the DEA to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (renaming the ATF the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Marijuana, Firearms and Explosives); and would authorize the Food and Drug Administration to apply the equivalent regulatory powers it has over alcohol, to cannabis. The act currently has 16 cosponsors – Fifteen Democrats and One Republican – in the House.

Polis is currently one of seven openly gay members of the 113th Congress, and caucuses in the LGBT Equality Caucus. Polis has pushed for the repeal of the Defense of Marriage Act, and has praised the Obama Administration’s decision for the Justice Department to no longer defend DOMA, saying that “Section 3 of the law is unconstitutional.” In a statement Polis said “I applaud the Administration for finally recognizing what my colleagues and I have long criticized, to deny people the ability to officially acknowledge their relationship and feel welcomed as partners only for being LGBT is absurd and today’s decision confirms this.” Polis has also credited President Obama for openly endorsing gay marriage calling it “welcome news to American families.”

Polis is an original cosponsor of H.R. 116, or the Respect for Marriage Act. H.R. 116 repeals DOMA allowing marriage recognition for gay and lesbian couples in the US, the District of Columbia, and US territories.

Polis is the leading sponsor of the Student Non-Discrimination Act with Senator Al Franken (D-MN), who introduced the act in the Senate. SNDA would establish a comprehensive federal non-discrimination prohibition in all public and elementary and secondary schools based on sexual orientation and gender identity, expanding Title IX of the Education Amendments Act to LGBT students. In a statement, Polis said “education is the right of every student” regardless of their actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity. “The alarming increase in teen suicides has shown us just how far we are from making our children’s schools safe spaces.” The SNDA has 167 co-sponsors in the House, with only two Republicans signing on. SNDA is also supported by the ACLU and Change.org.

Polis voted for the repeal of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell, which prohibited openly gay and lesbian members of the Military from serving. Along with 67 members of the House, in a letter to President Obama, Polis urged for the repeal of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell. In the letter it cited a California district judge’s ruling of the unconstitutionality of DADT, and the 14,000 service members that have been discharged from the military since the passage of DADT.

In a press release on the repeal of DADT Polis said: “The repeal of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell is a victory for the cause of equality and our national defense. For too long, this wrongheaded policy prevented brave Americans from serving in our military and defending our country just because of who they love. It undermined our national security by forcing gays and lesbians out of the military service at a time when America needs the most talented and the bravest protecting us, regardless of their orientation.”

Polis is also a supporter and cosponsor of the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, giving adequate funding and ability to federal authorities to investigate hate crimes, and has advocated for protections against LGBT victims of domestic violence to be included in the Violence Against Women Act.

On the morning of September 18, 2014, Polis filed a discharge motion to bring the LGBT Employment Non-Discrimination Act to the floor of the House of Representatives for a proper vote. Representatives Garamenedi, Holt, and Connolly joined Polis in support in filing the petition. The revised legislation includes narrow religious exemptions.

Polis vowed to protect Bitcoin in Congress and to fight against any attempts by the government to enact policies that restrict the growth of bitcoin and its burgeoning startup community. In May 2014, Jared Polis became the first U.S. representative to accept campaign donations via Bitcoin.

In 2014, Polis sponsored two ballot measures targeting hydraulic fracturing, Initiatives 88 and 89. Polis sought to move fracking from 500 feet from people’s homes to 2,000 feet to improve the quality of life for homeowners in affected areas. On 4 August 2014, Polis announced that he would withdraw his support for the two ballot measures.

In September 2015, Polis voiced support for altering university disciplinary processes surrounding campus rape to allow for cases to be judged against a reasonable likelihood standard, saying that: “If there are 10 people who have been accused, and under a reasonable likelihood standard maybe one or two did it, it seems better to get rid of all 10 people … we’re not talking about depriving them of life or liberty, we’re talking about them being transferred to another university, for crying out loud.” After being criticized for these remarks, Polis apologized, saying that: “I went too far by implying that I support expelling innocent students from college campuses, which is something neither I nor other advocates of justice for survivors of sexual assault support”.

Polis has shown interest in the regulatory environment relating to kombucha.

Polis is one of the few openly gay people elected to the House as a freshman and the first gay parent in Congress. Polis and his partner, Marlon Reis, have two children: son Caspian Julius, born on September 30, 2011, and daughter Cora Barucha, born July 4, 2014.

Polis enjoys video games such as League of Legends, and his favorite champions include Maokai and Anivia. He is a member of the Jewish faith and resides in Boulder, Colorado.

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Gerald Nutz

Gerald Nutz (* 25. Jänner 1994 in Judenburg) ist ein österreichischer Fußballspieler. Seit 2016 spielt er für den Wolfsberger AC in der österreichischen Bundesliga.

Nutz begann seine Karriere beim FSC Pöls. 2008 ging er in die AKA Kapfenberg. 2012 spielte er erstmals für die Regionalligamannschaft. Sein Profidebüt gab er am 9. Spieltag 2013/14 gegen den FC Liefering.

Zur Saison 2016/17 wechselte er zum Bundesligisten Wolfsberger AC, bei dem er einen bis Juni 2018 gültigen Vertrag erhielt.

Sein Bruder ist der Fußballspieler Stefan Nutz.

Bojan Avramović | Christian Dobnik | Stefan Gölles | Manfred Gollner | Bernd Gschweidl | Saša Jovanović | Ash Kigbu | Alexander Kofler | Mario Leitgeb | Michael Liendl | Michael Novak | Gerald Nutz | Dever Orgill | Marcel Ritzmaier | Nemanja Rnić | Marc Andre Schmerböck | Lukas Schmitz | Marko Soldo | Michael Sollbauer | Sven Sprangler | Joshua Steiger | Christopher Wernitznig

Trainer: Christian Ilzer

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Aristoxenos

Aristoxenos fra Taranto (gammelgresk Ἀριστόξενος Aristóxenos; født rundt 360 f.Kr.; død rundt 300 f.Kr.) var en gresk filosof og musikkteoretiker.

Aristoxenos’ far, Sokrates-eleven Spintharos var en lærd musiker, og gav sønnen den første musikkutdanningen. Senere var Aristoxenos elev hos pythagoreeren Xenophilos fra Khalkidiki og musikklæreren Lampros, og ble tilslutt elev av Aristoteles og medlem den peripatetiske skolen.

Det meste av Aristoxenos’ skrifter om filosofi, etikk og musikk er tapt, men en avhandling om musikk, Elementa harmonica, er delvis bevart, dessuten noen fragmenter om rytme og takt. Aristoxenos er den tidligste forfatteren fra antikken som det er bevart omfattende skrifter om musikk av. Elementa er hovedkilden til kunnskapen om antikkens greske musikk.

På rent musikalsk grunnlag definerte Aristoxenos blant annet begrepene intervall, tonesystem, heltone, halvtone, tredelstone, kvarttone, dessuten diatoniske, kromatiske og enharmoniske modi, toneverdi og rytme. Med disse begrepene preget han en stor del av den senere musikkterminologien i seinantikken og middelalderen. Begrepene brukes fremdeles, om enn med til dels modifisert betydning.

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Carlo Augusto di Sassonia-Weimar-Eisenach (1912-1988)

Carlo Augusto, granduca ereditario di Sassonia-Weimar-Eisenach (Carl August Wilhelm Ernst Friedrich Georg Johann Albrecht; 28 luglio 1912 – 14 ottobre 1988), era un principe tedesco e capo della casata granducale di Sassonia-Weimar-Eisenach.

Nacque al castello di Wilhelmsthal come secondogenito, ma maggiore tra i maschi, ed erede del granduca Guglielmo Ernesto di Sassonia-Weimar-Eisenach e della sua seconda moglie, la principessa Feodora di Sassonia-Meiningen (1890-1972). Il regno di suo padre ebbe termine il 9 novembre 1918, a seguito della rivoluzione tedesca. Quando suo padre morì il 24 aprile 1923, Carlo Augusto gli successe come capo del casato di Sassonia-Weimar-Eisenach. Fino al 1922 Carlo Augusto era terzo nella linea di successione al trono del regno dei Paesi Bassi.

Carlo Augusto morì a Schienen e fu succeduto come capo della casata granducale da suo figlio Michele.

Carlo Augusto sposò nel castello di Wartburg il 5 ottobre 1944 la baronessa Elisabetta di Wangenheim-Winterstein (Tubinga, 16 gennaio 1912 – Monaco di Baviera, 15 marzo 2010), figlia del barone Othmar di Wangenheim-Winterstein e di sua moglie Maud von Truetzschler. Hanno avuto tre figli:

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Georg von Kopp

Georg Kopp, ab 1881 Georg von Kopp (* 25. Juli 1837 in Duderstadt im Eichsfeld; † 4. März 1914 in Troppau) war von 1881 bis 1887 Bischof von Fulda, von 1887 bis 1914 Fürstbischof des Bistums Breslau und ab 1893 Kardinal.

Seine Eltern waren der Weber Ignaz Kopp und dessen Ehefrau Wilhelmine, geb. Oppermann. Nach dem Abschluss der Bürgerschule und des Progymnasiums in Duderstadt besuchte er das Gymnasium Josephinum in Hildesheim. Nach dem Abitur trat er 1856 als Eisenbahn-Hilfstelegraphist in den hannoveranischen Staatsdienst ein, den er nach zwei Jahren vorzeitig verließ.

Von 1858 bis 1861 studierte er an der theologisch-philosophischen Lehranstalt in Hildesheim. Nach der Priesterweihe am 28. August 1862 wirkte er als Kaplan und Religionslehrer. 1865 erfolgte die Berufung an das Hildesheimer Generalvikariat, wo er 1868 zum Assessor befördert wurde. Bischof Wilhelm Sommerwerck ernannte ihn 1872 zum Domkapitular und zum Generalvikar.

In den folgenden Jahren des Kulturkampfes verwaltete Kopp sein Amt umsichtig. Er legte aus patriotischer Gesinnung viel Wert auf ein gutes Einvernehmen mit der preußischen Regierung und Reichskanzler Otto von Bismarck, zu dem er bereits 1872 Kontakt aufgenommen hatte.

Als nach acht Jahren Sedisvakanz 1881 ein neuer Bischof von Fulda gewählt werden sollte, war Kopp der einzige Kandidat, dem Preußen zustimmen konnte. Die Bestätigung durch Papst Leo XIII. erfolgte am 15. November 1881, die Bischofsweihe nahm am 27. Dezember 1881 Wilhelm Sommerwerk, sein früherer Lehrer, vor; Mitkonsekratoren waren Franz Joseph von Stein, Bischof von Würzburg, und Michael Felix Korum, Bischof von Trier. In seiner Diözese, die vom Kulturkampf stark in Mitleidenschaft gezogen worden war, bemühte Georg von Kopp sich um die Erneuerung der seelsorglichen Dienste und der kirchlichen Organisationsstrukturen. Trotz der Anfeindungen durch die ultramontane Presse war Kopp bemüht, ein friedliches Verhältnis der Kirche zur preußischen Regierung herzustellen, und unterstützte den Papst bei den Verhandlungen über die Revision der Maigesetze.

Der Berufung in den Preußischen Staatsrat 1884 folgte 1886 mit Zustimmung des Papstes die Ernennung zum Mitglied des Preußischen Herrenhauses. Dadurch konnte er an der Vorbereitung und Verabschiedung der Kirchengesetze von 1886 und 1887 entscheidend mitwirken, hatte jedoch nachfolgend die Mehrheit der Bischöfe und des Zentrums gegen sich, die eine kompromisslose Zurücknahme der Folgen des Kulturkampfes und eine Wiederherstellung der ursprünglichen kirchlichen Positionen forderten.

Auf Wunsch der preußischen Regierung und gegen den Widerstand des Domkapitels, das andere Kandidaten zur Wahl vorgeschlagen hatte, berief der Papst Georg Kopp am 9. August 1887 zum Fürstbischof von Breslau. Da zum Breslauer Bistum auch Gebiete im damaligen Österreichisch-Schlesien gehörten, wurde er gleichzeitig mit der Ernennung Mitglied des österreichischen Herrenhauses und des Troppauer Landtages.

Als Oberhirte der flächenmäßig größten und reichsten Diözese des Deutschen Reiches widmete sich Kopp der Reorganisation und dem Ausbau seines Bistums und unterstützte das katholische Vereinsleben. Durch den Ausbau der geistlichen Bildungseinrichtungen, den Neubau des theologischen Konvikts und der Knabenkonvikte in Beuthen, Glogau und Gleiwitz sowie des Konvikts und Priesterseminars in Weidenau förderte er den Priesternachwuchs. Während seiner Amtszeit entstanden mehr als 650 Kirchen, Klöster und kirchliche Anstalten. Für die polnischsprachige Bevölkerung in Oberschlesien befürwortete er den Gebrauch der Muttersprache in Kirche und Religionsunterricht und bekämpfte 1908 das antipolnische Enteignungsgesetz.

1882 bezog Kopp öffentlich Stellung gegen Ritualmordbeschuldigungen gegenüber Juden. 1900 wurden seine Äußerungen erneut abgedruckt.

Am 16. Januar 1893 nahm ihn Papst Leo XIII. als Kardinalpriester mit der Titelkirche Sant’Agnese fuori le mura in das Kardinalskollegium auf.

Mit der Übernahme der Leitung der Fuldaer Bischofskonferenz im Jahre 1900, die er bis zu seinem Tode innehatte, gelang ihm der Aufstieg an die Spitze des deutschen Episkopats. Die Göttinger Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften ernannte ihn 1902 zum Ehrenmitglied.

Obwohl sich sein Einfluss in Berlin und an der römischen Kurie nach dem Tod von Papst Leo XIII. verringerte, erhielt er für seine Vermittlerrolle zwischen Regierung und Papst 1906 von Kaiser Wilhelm II. den Schwarzen Adlerorden, mit dem die Aufnahme in den erblichen preußischen Adel verbunden war.

Durch seinen Einfluss auf die Beilegung des Kulturkampfes und die Integration der katholischen Kirche im Deutschen Kaiserreich kann Kopp zu den bedeutendsten Kirchenfürsten seiner Zeit gezählt werden. Andererseits war sein Wirken gerade wegen dieser Leistungen nicht unumstritten. Sein Einvernehmen und seine Zusammenarbeit mit den Staatsbehörden schwächte die Ziele der katholischen Zentrumspartei und entfremdete ihn auch einem Teil seiner Amtsbrüder. Durch mangelndes Verständnis für die Ziele der katholischen Arbeiterbewegung verlor er auch den Kontakt zur Basis der Gläubigen. Seine unversöhnlichen Positionen während der polnischen Schulstreiks wie auch im Gewerkschaftsstreit, die in den letzten Jahren der Amtszeit von Kopps seine öffentliche Wahrnehmung beherrschten, brachten ihn in scharfen Gegensatz sowohl zu Vertretern des preußischen Staates als auch zu allen fortschrittlichen Kräften innerhalb und außerhalb des Katholizismus, was den Ruf als äußerst konservativer, ultramontaner Kirchenfürst zementierte, der sein Bild in der deutschen Öffentlichkeit bei seinem Tod bestimmte.

Kopp war ein großer Förderer von Kunst und Wissenschaft. Er schuf das Breslauer Diözesanarchiv und das Diözesanmuseum und erneuerte die Dombibliothek. Zahlreiche wissenschaftliche Vorhaben und Ausgrabungen wurden von ihm unterstützt. Die Universitäten Breslau und Münster verliehen ihm die Ehrendoktorwürde. Er war Ritter des Ritterordens vom Heiligen Grab zu Jerusalem.

Von Kopp trat öffentlich für die katholische Mäßigkeitsbewegung ein und versuchte deren innerkirchliche Akzeptanz zu fördern.

Er starb 1914 und wurde im Breslauer Dom bestattet.

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Тюмерево

Тюмерево (чуваш. Тӗмер) — село в Янтиковском районе Чувашской Республики, административный центр Тюмеревского сельского поселения.

По топонимическим признакам слово Тӗмер произошло от марийского слова Тумер, что означает «дубняк», «дубрава».

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Gerbrand Adriaenszoon Bredero

Gerbrand Adriaenszoon Bredero (16. marts 1585 i Amsterdam – 8. juli 1618 sammesteds) var en hollandsk komedieskriver og poet i den hollandske litteraturs klassiske tid.

Han forsøgte sig først som maler, men kom snart i berøring med samtidens ansete forfattere og blev derved lokket ind på litterær virksomhed, og allerede i en alder af 18 år regnedes han af mænd som Vondel og Coster for digter. Han udfoldede nu i løbet af en halv snes år en meget frugtbar produktion, skrev en mængde skuespil og digte og opnåede såvel på det dramatiske som på det lyriske omraade sin samtids yndest i fuldeste mål.

I sine skuespil følger han tidens mode og skriver højtidelige ridderdramaer; men af og til afbryder han deres tørre ensformighed ved indstrøede, groteske scener af det amsterdamske folkeliv, som han kendte af selvsyn. Mange af disse scener og typer var ligesom visse Scener i Holbergs komedier nærmest beregnede på at indfange det bredere lags bifald. Men der var troligvis langt flere, som morede sig over disse hjemlige optrin, om end kritikken lod hånt om dem og anbefalede ham flittig at studere Terents.

På indførelsen af dette ny folkelige og lavkomiske element beror Brederos betydning for hans lands litteratur Han viser sig på dette punkt som en åndsbeslægtet af sådanne djærve samtidige genremalere som Jan Steen og Teniers. Af hans skuespil er de berømteste: »De klucht van de Koe« (1612), »De klucht van den Molenaer« (1613), »Spaanschen Brabander Jorolimo« (1618). Andre af hans sceniske arbejder er oversættelser, således er »Moortje« en fri bearbejdelse af Terents’ Eunuchus; det gjorde umådelig lykke og holdt sig 80 år på repertoiret.

Hans lyriske digte er snart tungsindige, snart muntre. De fleste af dem handler om elskovens omskiftelser, som Bredero i sit liv havde rig lejlighed til at lære at kende. Hooft vidner, at han var kun alt for følsom for kvindelig skønhed, og det samme indtryk giver hans digte. Også paa dette felt viser han sig som den folkelige skribent, der er forholdsvis lidet hildet i den kedsommelige, klassiske manér. Hans sprog er friskt og naturligt; han hævder selv, at han ikke har lært det af nogen bog, men af folkets daglige tale.

I Boertingh amoreus en aendachtigh Liedt-Boeck samlede han sine lystige viser og tilegnede Amsterdams lystige og muntre ungdom disse »muntre børn«, og amsterdammerne fandt et sådant behag i dem, at de et århundrede igennem blev sunget dagligt. Bredero nød stor anseelse i sin fødeby. Derom vidner det, at han nød den meget eftertragtede ære at blive valgt til fændrik for et skytteselskab. Hans samtlige værker er udgivet i 3 bind (Amsterdam 1885-88).


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Julia Mesa

Julia Mesa (en latín, Iulia Mæsa; 7 de mayo c. 165 – 3 de agosto de 224) fue una dama romana​ hija de Julio Basiano, sacerdote del dios del sol El-Gabal, el dios tutelar de Emesa (actual Homs), en la provincia de Siria, y abuela de los emperadores Heliogábalo y Alejandro Severo. Participó en el asesinato del primero para favorecer la ascensión al trono del segundo, que años más tarde también sería asesinado dando comienzo a la crisis del siglo III.

Al igual que su hermana menor, Julia Domna, estuvo entre las mujeres más importantes que ejercieron el poder detrás del trono en el Imperio romano. Después de la muerte de Caracalla, Julia Mesa rescató a la Dinastía Severa del usurpador Macrino.​

Julia Mesa se casó con el noble sirio Julio Avito, con quien tuvo dos hijas: Julia Soemias y Julia Mamea, ambas madres de emperadores. Después de la ascensión al trono de su cuñado, Septimio Severo, Julia Mesa se trasladó a Roma para vivir con su hermana. Tras el asesinato de su sobrino, Caracalla y el suicidio de Julia Domna, se vio obligada a volver a Siria.

Desde Siria, organizó un complot para derrocar a Macrino y reemplazarle por su nieto, Heliogábalo, el hijo de Julia Soemias. Para legitimar esta pretensión, madre e hija fomentaron el rumor de que el muchacho era hijo ilegítimo de Caracalla, y tuvieron éxito, ya que Macrino era de origen oscuro, sin conexiones políticas.

Por el apoyo prestado, Heliogábalo concedió a Julia Mesa el título de Augusta avia Augusti (Augusta, abuela de Augusto). El nuevo emperador resultó un desastre, escandalizando a los romanos con sus escándalos sexuales y religiosos, así que Julia Mesa decidió promover a su otro nieto, Alejandro Severo.

Primero convenció a Heliogábalo de adoptar a Alejandro, y poco después, el emperador fue asesinado por la Guardia pretoriana, junto con su madre. Ambos cuerpos fueron arrojados al Tíber, tras ser arrastrados por las calles.

Julia Mesa murió en fecha cercana a 226, y fue deificada, al igual que su hermana.

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Gmina Szczekociny

Gmina Szczekociny is an urban-rural gmina (administrative district) in Zawiercie County, Silesian Voivodeship, in southern Poland. Its seat is the town of Szczekociny, which lies approximately 33 kilometres (21 mi) north-east of Zawiercie and 73 km (45 mi) north-east of the regional capital Katowice.

The gmina covers an area of 136.09 square kilometres (52.5 sq mi), and as of 2006 its total population is 8,350 (out of which the population of Szczekociny amounts to 3,912, and the population of the rural part of the gmina is 4,438).

Apart from the town of Szczekociny, Gmina Szczekociny contains the villages and settlements of Bógdał, Bonowice, Brzostek, Chałupki, Drużykowa, Goleniowy, Grabiec, Gustawów, Małachów, Ołudza, Przyłęk, Rędziny, Rokitno, Siedliska, Starzyny, Szyszki, Tęgobórz, Wólka Ołudzka and Wólka Starzyńska.

Gmina Szczekociny is bordered by the gminas of Irządze, Koniecpol, Kroczyce, Lelów, Moskorzew, Pilica, Radków, Secemin, Słupia and Żarnowiec.

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Ewald Groth

Ewald Groth (* 10. Oktober 1953 in Lünen) ist ein deutscher Politiker und war bis 2010 nordrhein-westfälischer Landtagsabgeordneter für Bündnis 90/Die Grünen.

Seine Mittlere Reife erlangte Ewald Groth 1969 am Freiherr-vom-Stein-Gymnasium in Lünen. Anschließend besuchte er die Fachoberschule für Sozialarbeit und Sozialpädagogik in Lünen, die er mit dem Fachabitur 1973 abschloss.

Von 1973 bis 1975 studierte er an der Fachhochschule für Sozialarbeit und machte gleichzeitig sein Vollabitur am Abendgymnasium Dortmund, danach bis 1981 Studium an der Heilpädagogischen Hochschule in Dortmund. Nach dem Abschluss des Staatsexamens und seiner Ausbildung zum Sonderschullehrer arbeitete Groth als Krankenhauslehrer in der Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie in Osnabrück. 1989 bis 1995 war er als Sonderschullehrer an der Albert-Schweitzer-Schule in Münster, der Montessori-Schule für Lernbehinderte, tätig und erlangte dort auch sein Montessori-Diplom.

Ewald Groth ist seit Ende der 1980er Jahre bei den Grünen aktiv, zunächst gründete er zusammen mit Heinz Kock im Jahr 1989 den Ortsverband Ostbevern im Kreis Warendorf und zog im gleichen Jahr als Fraktionsvorsitzender in den Gemeinderat von Ostbevern ein. Ab 1994 war er Mitglied des Kreistages Warendorf.

Groth wurde 1995 in den Landtag von Nordrhein-Westfalen als Abgeordneter für die grüne Fraktion gewählt. Dort war er als kommunalpolitischer Sprecher, Sprecher für die Verwaltungsreform und Sprecher für Sportpolitik tätig.

Im Mai 2005 schied Groth aus dem Landtag aus und kehrte vorläufig in seinen alten Beruf zurück. Nach dem Wechsel von Michael Vesper zum Deutschen Olympischen Sportbund zog er am 1. Oktober 2006 zum zweiten Mal in den Landtag ein.

Er war unter anderem als Vorsitzender im Ausschuss für Innovation, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie (AIWFT) und als Sprecher im Haushalts- und Finanzausschuss sowie für Sportpolitik tätig. Er gehörte dem Parlamentarischen Untersuchungsausschuss zur Untersuchung des Foltermords in der Jugendstrafanstalt Siegburg an und war Mitglied in der Enquetekommission zur Gewaltprävention bei Kindern und Jugendlichen, die in Folge der Auflösung des Untersuchungsausschusses gegründet wurde. Als Abgeordneter betreute er zudem die grünen Kreisverbände Bochum, Borken, Bottrop, Hagen, Hamm, Herne, Recklinghausen und Steinfurt. Dem 2010 gewählten Landtag gehört er nicht mehr an.

Groth ist verheiratet, hat drei Kinder und lebt in Bochum.

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