Stoke-on-Trent City Council election, 2011

Elections to Stoke-on-Trent City Council took place on 5 May 2011. This election was the first following an Electoral Review by the Local Government Boundary Commission for England. The total number of councillors became 44 (down from 60) in a mixture of single and multi-member wards (31 single member wards, 5 two member wards and 1 three member ward). The former election by thirds (i.e., one third of councillors up for election in each of three years out of a four-year cycle) was replaced by whole council election every fourth year.

After the election, the parties were represented thus: Labour 34 seats; Conservative 2 seats; Others (independents and “unaffiliated”) 8 seats. After several years as a minority party, Labour had acquired a dominant majority of seats. A notable feature of this result was the elimination of Liberal Democrat representation and that of various right-wing populist parties. The second largest political “grouping” is of Independent councillors.

The net change column is a comparison with the preceding council, which was 16 members larger. It was, therefore, possible for every party or group to have lost seats. Shares of the votes are based upon accepted votes cast (in multi-member wards, an elector is not obliged to use all votes to which they are entitled).

Elected candidates are in bold. Previously sitting councillors (on the old 60 member council) marked by “*”.

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Taganskaja-Radial’naja

Coordinate:

Taganskaja in russo: Таганская? è una stazione della Metropolitana di Mosca, situata sulla Linea Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaja.

La stazione fu inaugurata nel 1966, come fermata iniziale del ramo Ždanovskij (oggi Taganskij). Dato che il design a tre arcate sostenute da pilastri offre maggiori potenziali di decorazione, gli architetti Nina Aleshina e Vdovin sfruttarono tale progetto, decorando i piloni in marmo bianco con strisce di marmo marroni. In modo simile, anche le piastrelle bianche e nere in ceramica sono decorate con opere di metallo secondo il tema dello spazio. Il pavimento è ricoperto di granito rosso e grigio; l’ingresso sotterraneo della stazione è collegato con il sottopassaggio al di sotto di via Bolšaja Kammenka. Le scale in superficie sono protette contro gli agenti atmosferici da pensiline trasparenti (le prime installate a Mosca. Al momento dell’inaugurazione, la stazione divenne il capolinea della linea Ždanovskaja fino al 1970; oltre la stazione vi è un tratto di binario che permette ai treni di invertire la marcia per portarsi sull’altro binario, e permette anche di raggiungere un collegamento di servizio con la Linea Kol’cevaja.

Sin dall’inizio, la stazione fu disegnata come punto di interscambio con la stazione Taganskaja della Linea Kol’cevaja. Nel 1979, con la costruzione della stazione Marksistskaja della Linea Kalininskaja, furono aggiunte tre rampe di scale costruite nella zona nord della stazione, per collegarla con la nuova fermata.

La stazione sostiene un carico passeggeri giornaliero di 179.200 persone dall’interscambio con Marksistaskaja, 128.800 dalla linea circolare (Kol’cevaja) e 22.400 persone dai suoi ingressi.

Altri progetti

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Ecliptisch vlak

Met het ecliptisch vlak wordt het vlak van de ecliptica bedoeld, ofwel het geometrische vlak waarbinnen de Aarde haar baan om de Zon beschrijft. Het schijnbare traject dat de Zon van de Aarde af bezien in de loop van een jaar langs de hemelbol aflegt valt precies samen met dit vlak. Ook de banen die de andere planeten in het zonnestelsel om de zon beschrijven liggen in een dergelijk vlak. Dit komt doordat alle planeten zijn gevormd uit een “uitgeplatte” protoplanetaire schijf.

De benaming “ecliptisch” hangt samen met het woord eclips, ofwel zonsverduistering. Het vlak waarbinnen de baan van de aarde om de zon ligt wordt namelijk zo genoemd, omdat een zonsverduistering op Aarde alleen kan optreden wanneer ook de maan zich precies in dit vlak bevindt. Omdat de positie van het ecliptische vlak niet constant is maar als gevolg van de precessie van de aardas en de beweging van alle sterren in de Melkweg in de loop van duizenden jaren schommelt, wordt het vlak beschreven aan de hand van een epoche dat wordt gedefinieerd als 1950.0 of 2000.0.

Bij de beschrijving van de positie van objecten in het zonnestelsel is het ecliptische vlak het belangrijkste referentiepunt. Aan de hand van zowel het ecliptische vlak als het vlak van de evenaar kan ook de positie van andere sterren in de Melkweg worden berekend.

De punten waar het ecliptische vlak van de aarde en de hemelevenaar elkaar snijden staan bekend als het lentepunt en het herfstpunt. In 2005 was de snijdhoek 23°27’.

Het ecliptische vlak kan verstoord worden door de zwaartekracht van andere planeten.

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Crystal Hefner

Crystal Harris (23 de abril de 1986; Lake Havasu City, Estados Unidos), mejor conocida como Crystal Hefner, es una modelo, cantante y personalidad de televisión estadounidense. Fue Playmate del mes de la revista Playboy en diciembre del 2009​ y precisamente contrajo matrimonio con Hugh Hefner, el fundador de la revista, el 31 de diciembre de 2012.​ El 27 de septiembre de 2017 se convirtió en la viuda del nonagenario editor de Playboy.

Los padres de Harris fueron artistas británicos que estaban trabajando en un parque temático sobre Inglaterra en Lake Havasu City, Arizona, cuando ella nació. Tras el nacimiento de Crystal, regresaron a Inglaterra para más tarde, volver a los Estados Unidos y afincarse definitivamente en San Diego, California, donde Crystal y sus dos hermanas se criaron.​ Harris fue expuesta a la industria del entretenimiento por su difunto padre, Ray Harris, cantante y compositor.​

Harris asistió a La Jolla High School y a Universidad Estatal de San Diego, especializándose en psicología.​ Fue durante este período cuando comenzó a trabajar como modelo, consiguiendo captar la atención de la organización Playboy.

Harris conoció a Hugh Hefner en Halloween de 2008.​ Ella asistió a una fiesta en la mansión Playboy, a la que había sido invitada por un amigo.​ Luego apareció como “Co-Ed of the week” en la revista Playboy.com durante la semana del 30 de octubre de 2008, bajo el nombre de Crystal Carter.​ Desde finales de 2009, Harris ha aparecido en dos temporadas del reality show The Girls Next Door de E!.

En abril de 2010, Harris firmó un contrato de grabación con Orgánica Music Group, una división de Universal, dirigido por el productor Michael Blakey.​ Su primer sencillo “Club Queen” fue lanzado el 14 de junio 2011.​ Ella apareció en un episodio de la segunda temporada de The Hills.[cita requerida]

En enero de 2009 empezó a salir con Hugh Hefner,​ uniéndose a las gemelas Karissa y Kristina Shannon, después de que su anterior novia, Holly Madison, lo abandonara.​ El 24 de diciembre de 2010, ella se comprometió con Hugh Hefner, para convertirse en su tercera esposa.​ Harris rompió su compromiso el 14 de junio de 2011, cinco días antes de la boda.​ Anticipándose a la boda, en la edición de julio de Playboy, Harris apareció en la portada. El titular de la portada decía “Presentamos a la princesa de los Estados Unidos, la señora Crystal Hefner”. Esto fue tapado posteriormente en los quioscos con una pegatina que decía: “Novia fugitiva”. El 1 de junio de 2012, se informó de que Harris se habría reconciliado con Hefner. Posteriormente ella lo confirmó en su Twitter.​ Finalmente el fundador de la revista Playboy se casó con su “novia huidiza”, en una ceremonia privada en la mansión Playboy en la víspera de Año Nuevo de 2013. Se convirtió en viuda cuando el famoso editor de la revista Playboy falleció en su mansión por causas naturales a la edad de 91 años, el 27 de septiembre de 2017.

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Eloise Mignon

Eloise Mignon (born 18 September 1986) is an Australian actress. She began her career starring in children’s television shows: The Legacy of the Silver Shadow and Silversun. As well as the well known Australian soap opera Neighbours. She possesses multiple citizenship, including Australia, France and the United States.

Eloise Mignon was born in Melbourne to French director Jean-Pierre Mignon, and Katharine Sturak, an American. Mignon was educated at Melbourne Girls College, Wesley College and St Michael’s Grammar School.[citation needed]

Mignon worked from a young age in independent theatre, notably with The Black Lung Theatre and Whaling Firm in their multi award-winning production Rubeville where she played Trixi.

Her screen credits include a role in Legacy of the Silver Shadow and a main character Mara Lomax in children’s sci-fi series Silversun. She also appears as a prostitute in the Australian film Three Blind Mice (2008), directed by Matthew Newton

From 23 July 2007, Mignon began appearing as Bridget Parker in the soap opera, Neighbours. In March 2009, it was announced that Mignon had quit the show. The character of Bridget died from injuries sustained in a car accident. Mignon announced that her reason for leaving the show was so that she could return to studying an Arts degree at the University of Melbourne.

Mignon performed as Jennifer in the play In A Dark Dark House at the Red Stitch Actors Theatre in Melbourne until 22 August 2009. She performed for the Melbourne Theatre Company in The Grenade, and Return to Earth. In 2010 Mignon appeared in City Homicide as Layla.

Since 2010 Mignon has primarily worked in professional theatre in Australia and France. In 2011 Mignon played the role of Hedvig in Belvoir’s production of the Henrik Ibsen play The Wild Duck opposite Toby Schmitz and Anita Hegh, directed by Simon Stone. Her performance was praised with one critic commenting “Mignon articulates the young girl’s confusion in heartbreaking fashion”. The production was invited to perform at the International Ibsen Festival in Oslo as well as the Weiner Festowchen and Holland Festival. Mignon’s performance was critically very well regarded.

In 2012 Mignon returned to the Belvoir stage appearing first in Every Breath by writer and director Benedict Andrews, followed by Strange Interlude where she interpreted Madeleine with director Simon Stone, and a new production of the Noël Coward play Private Lives. In 2013 she returned to work with Simon Stone on The Cherry Orchard for Melbourne Theatre Company where she interpreted Anya. Mignon appeared in the third series of Miss Fisher’s Murder Mysteries in 2015.

From 2014 to 2016 she collaborated on and performed in two projects with the German auteur Falk Richter- Complexity of Belonging in conjunction with choreographer Anouk van Dijk for Chunky Move and Je Suis Fassbinder with French theatre director Stanislas Nordey at the Théâtre National de Strasbourg and Théâtre National de la Colline, Paris. Both projects were written with her in mind; she performs the role ‘Eloise’.

Mignon has a Bachelor of Arts (Honours Degree) from the University of Melbourne.[citation needed]

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Mediaș

Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment ?) selon les recommandations des projets correspondants.

Mediaș (en allemand Mediasch, en hongrois Medgyes) est une ville du județ de Sibiu en Roumanie. Elle comptait 53 564 habitants en 2011.

La ville se situe sur le cours de Târnava Mare, à 39 km de Sighișoara, 41 km de Blaj et 55 km de Sibiu.

La ville fut fondée à la fin du XIIe siècle, voire au début du XIIIe siècle par des colons allemands invités par plusieurs rois de la Hongrie. Jusqu’au XVIe siècle Mediaș se développa dans un important centre commercial, politique et culturel.

La première église roumaine de la ville fut édifiée en 1826 par l’évêque grec-catholique Ioan Bob (en), qui y fonda aussi la première école de langue roumaine.

En 2002, la population de Mediaș s’élevait à 55 153 habitants, appartenant à plusieurs communautés ethniques : 45 376 Roumains, 6 554 Hongrois, 1 959 Roms, 1 150 Allemands et 114 autres.

Lors du recensement de 2011, 76,73 % de la population se déclarent roumains, 9,63 % comme hongrois, 4,04 % comme roms et 1,48 % comme allemands (7,9 % ne déclarent pas d’appartenance ethnique et 0,19 % déclarent appartenir à une autre ethnie).

La ville dispose de dix collèges et de cinq lycées.

La ville se trouve au centre d’une réputée région viticole. À partir de 1900, Mediaș est aussi l’un des plus importants centres d’exploitation du gaz méthane de la Roumanie.

Véritable musée en plein air, Mediaș a bien préservé son patrimoine architectural qui présente une riche palette de styles : gothique, renaissance, baroque, néoclassique et sécession. En outre, la ville a aussi préservé une bonne partie de ses ouvrages de fortification : 17 tours et bastions, des remparts d’une hauteur de plus de 7 mètres, ainsi que trois portes principales et quatre portes secondaires d’accès. L’église fortifiée Sfânta Margareta (de) du centre-ville se vante d’un précieux ensemble de fresques gothiques, alors que l’horloge de sa tour montre les phases de la lune.

La localité de Moșna (en), qui abrite une imposante église fortifiée, se trouve à 10 km de Mediaș sur la route vers Agnita (petite ville médiévale avec une église fortifiée). À 18 km de Mediaș il y a la station balnéaire de Bazna (petite localité médiévale, mentionnée dès 1302, possédant une puissante église fortifiée). La station bénéficie de plusieurs sources d’eau minérale, riche en sels, et de boues minérales et salées.

Centre-ville avec l’église Sainte-Marguerite (de) en arrière-plan.

Église Ioan Bob.

Tour Forkesch.

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

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Transfiguratiekathedraal (Nizjni Novgorod)

De Kathedraal van de Transfiguratie (Russisch: Спа́со-Преображе́нский собо́р) of Spasskija Starojarmarotsjny Kathedraal (Russisch: Спасский Староярмарочный собор) is een Russisch-orthodoxe kathedraal in de Russische stad Nizjni Novgorod. De kathedraal is het oudste nog bestaande gebouw van het oude handelsgebied dat bij Nizjni Novgorod werd gevestigd, na een allesvernietigende brand in 1816 op de oude plek bij het Makarjevklooster.

De kathedraal werd gebouwd in de jaren 1818-1822 op de linkeroever van de Oka. Vanwege het drassige grondgebied, dat in de lente vaak overspoeld werd door de uit de oevers tredende rivier, werd de kerk op palen gebouwd. Al in de vroege jaren 50 van de 19e eeuw bleek de fundering ernstig aangetast en moest de kathedraal eind 19e eeuw ingrijpend worden gerestaureerd. Architect van de kerk was de uit Frankrijk afkomstige Auguste de Montferrand, tevens de architect van de Izaäkkathedraal in Sint-Petersburg. Omdat de bouw, los van de geringere afmetingen, opvallend veel gelijkenissen vertoont met de Izaäkkathedraal en Montferrand meerdere ontwerpen maakte voor die kerk is het mogelijk dat hij bij de bouw van de kerk in Niznji Novgorod een van de oude tekeningen gebruikte. Na de voltooiing van de kathedraal veroorzaakte de iconostase van de kathedraal een fikse rel. De Italiaan Toricelli had bij de vervaardiging van de iconen geen rekening gehouden met de orthodoxe zeden en een aantal heiligen met ontblote lichaamsdelen afgebeeld. Veel kooplieden weigerden uit schaamte nog naar de kerk te gaan, anderen namen hun eigen iconen mee. Uiteindelijk werd er voor de kathedraal een nieuwe iconostase ontworpen door de Russische architect Vasili Petrovitsj Stasov.

Na de Oktoberrevolutie werd de kathedraal onttrokken aan de kerk en overgedragen aan een bedrijf. In 1989 besloot de Raad voor Religieuze Zaken van de Sovjet-Unie om de kathedraal terug te geven aan de Russisch-orthodoxe Kerk. De klokkentoren uit het bouwjaar 1906 overleefde de Sovjetperiode niet.

De overdracht van de kerk vond plaats in 1991 en vervolgens begon men onmiddellijk met de restauratie van het gebouw en het opknappen van de omgeving. Tot 2009 was de kathedraal de hoofdkerk van het bisdom Nizjni Novgorod-Arzamas. Nadat de restauratiewerkzaamheden aan de Alexander Nevski-kathedraal waren afgerond werd deze kerk de hoofdkerk van het bisdom. Op 11 september werd voor de kathedraal door patriarch Kirill een monument voor de slachtoffers van Tsjernobyl onthuld, voorstellende een engel met gekruiste armen op een sokkel met granieten platen waarop citaten uit de Heilige Schrift en namen van slachtoffers staan.

Prent uit 1850 met klokkentoren die eind 19e eeuw werd ontmanteld

Kathedraal met nieuwe klokkentoren

Iconostase

Koepel

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Jessie Hickman

Elizabeth Jessie Hickman (nee Hunt; 6 September 1890 – 1936) was an Australian bushranger. She had multiple aliases but is often referred to as The Lady Bushranger. In the 1920s she established herself as leader of a gang of cattle thieves in the area that is now Wollemi National Park. Forgotten for several decades after her death, she has been the subject of two recent books: The Burial by Courtney Collins, and Out of the Mists: The Hidden History of Elizabeth Jessie Hickman.

Jessie Hickman was born in either Burraga or Carcoar, New South Wales. At the age of eight she was sent to live with a travelling circus, attaining a reputation as a skilled roughrider – she was named Australian Ladies Roughriding Champion in 1905 and 1906.

Hickman eventually became the ringmistress of Martini’s Buckjumping Show, and may have been married to its one-time owner Martin Breheny (known as James Martini). In 1913 she had a son with Benjamin Hickman; the two married in 1920 and separated in 1924. She is rumored to have been married to an abusive third man, John Fitzgerald (known as “Fitzy”), whom she is alleged to have killed in self-defense.

Jessie Hickman was jailed twice in the 1910s for thefts. In the 1920s she established herself as leader of a gang of cattle thieves in the area that is now Wollemi National Park. She was charged with cattle rustling in 1918 and 1928, but was acquitted on both occasions. Her legendary exploits included “escap[ing] from custody while in a locked toilet aboard a moving train” and “steal[ing] cattle in a police holding yard”.

Hickman died of a brain tumour in 1936 and was interred in an unmarked grave in Sandgate Cemetery. Although she was largely forgotten for several decades, she has recently been the subject of several books, including The Burial by Courtney Collins and Out of the Mists: The Hidden History of Elizabeth Jessie Hickman by Hickman’s granddaughter Di Moore.

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Ivalo Lufthavn

Ivalo Lufthavn (IATA: IVL, ICAO: EFIV) er Finlands nordligste lufthavn. Den er beliggende 11 km sydvest for centrum af Ivalo, hovedbyen i Inari Kommune, Lapland. Umiddelbar nord for lufthavnen løber floden Ivalojoki.

I 2011 ekspederede den 125.535 passagerer, hvoraf de 103.000 fløj indenrigs i Finland.

Lufthavnen blev bygget i 1943 af tyske soldater og krigsfanger under Laplandskrigen. Da tyskerne i foråret 1945 blev tvunget til tilbagetrækning fra Lapland, ødelagde de det meste af det byggede, så andre ikke kunne benytte faciliteterne. Fem år efter begyndte man at genopbygge lufthavnen, og i 1955 startede Aero Oy (nu Finnair) flyvninger imellem Ivalo og Rovaniemi.

I 1970’erne udvidede man lufthavnen som konsekvens af et øget passagerantal, og i 1975 kom der for første gang ruteflyvning til Helsinki Lufthavn året rundt. Udover landingsbane 04/22 på knap 2.500 meter, havde lufthavnen indtil 31. juli 2008 også den 1.720 meter lange bane 26/8.

Finnair var i starten af 2014 eneste selskab der benyttede lufthavnen på daglig basis, da de havde en enkelt rotation til Helsinki samt Kittilä Lufthavn. Udover dette fløj blandt andet easyJet, SAS og Transavia.com til Ivalo i sommerperioden. Imellem jul og nytår er der en væsentlig trafik med turister fra Vest- og Centraleuropa.

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42-volt electrical system

In automobiles, a 42-volt electrical system was an electrical power standard proposed in the late 1990s. It was intended to allow more powerful electrically-driven accessories, and lighter automobile wiring harnesses. Electric motors were proposed to be used for power steering or other systems, providing more compact installations and eliminating the weight of drive belts or large wires for high-current loads.

The proposed new standard was more than triple the voltage of existing “12 volt” systems. The higher voltage was selected to provide greater power capacity for wiring and devices on one hand, and to stay under the 50 volt limit used as a guideline for electric shock hazard. The European auto manufacturer Daimler-Benz proposed a 42V brand name for the conversion.

Although many manufacturers were predicting a switch to 36-volt (lithium ion battery) / 42-volt (charging voltage) electrical systems, the changeover has not occurred, and the plans appear to have been canceled. The availability of higher-efficiency motors, new wiring techniques and digital controls, and a focus on hybrid vehicle systems that use high-voltage starter/generators has largely eliminated the push for switching the main automotive voltages. Applications that once were thought to require higher voltages, such as electrical power steering, have now been achieved with 12 volt systems. 42-volt electrical components are now used in only a few automotive applications, since incandescent light bulbs work well at 12 volts and switching of a 42-volt circuit is more difficult. 36-48 volt systems are (as of 2015-2020) coming back in Mild hybrid vehicles, which has some electric assist to the propulsion and has regeneration at braking, for fuel saving.

The SAE discussed an increased automobile standard voltage as early as 1988.

In 1994, at the initiative of Daimler-Benz, the first “Workshop on Advanced Architectures for Automotive Electrical Distribution Systems” was held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems (MIT/LEES) in Cambridge, Massachusetts USA. with the aim of defining the architecture for a future automotive electrical system. From the outset, the participants in this workshop included suppliers as well as the automobile companies Daimler-Benz, Ford and General Motors.

In September 1995, various electrical systems architectures were compared at MIT using the tool “MAESTrO”, and in December 1995, in the “Conclusions” of this study, a future voltage level of approximately 40 V was defined.

In early 1996, the “Consortium on Advanced Automotive Electrical and Electronic Systems” was set up. At the ensuing workshop in March 1996, the future nominal voltage of 42 V was confirmed.

In August 1996, IEEE Spectrum published the paper “Automotive electrical systems circa 2005”.

On the occasion of the October 1996 Convergence in Detroit, Professor John G. Kassakian (MIT) gave a talk entitled “The Future of Automotive Electrical Systems” as part of the “IEEE Workshop on Automotive Power- Electronics”.

On March 24, 1997, Daimler-Benz presented the MIT with a “Draft Specification of a Dual Voltage Vehicle Electrical Power System 42V/14V”.

At the same time as the activities in the USA, in 1994, again at the initiative of Daimler-Benz, the former SICAN GmbH held its first “Forum Bordnetz” (Vehicle Electrical System Forum) in Hanover for German automobile companies. Here too, suppliers were invited to participate at a very early stage, together with all European vehicle manufacturers.

On February 15, 1996, the introductory paper “Bordnetzarchitektur im Jahr 2005” (Automotive electrical system architecture for the year 2005) was agreed, and on June 4, 1996, BMW presented the “Tabelle heutiger und zukünftiger Verbraucher im Kfz” (Table of present and future loads in the motor vehicle) and the “42V/14V-Bordnetz” (42V/14V PowerNet).

On September 13, 1996, at the 7th International Technical Meeting for Vehicle Electronics in Baden-Baden, considerable interest was raised by the paper “Neue Bordnetz- Architektur und Konsequenzen” (New Automotive Electrical System Architecture and Consequences), presented by Dr. Richard D. Tabors (MIT).

On March 6, 1997, BMW presented the “Spezifikationsentwurf für das Zwei-Spannungsbordnetz 42V/14V” (Draft Specification of a Dual Voltage Vehicle Electrical Power System 42V/14V) in Hanover.

The work at SICAN GmbH was given decisive impetus by the cooperation between BMW and Daimler-Benz, as witnessed in their joint definition of the European “Load List 2005” and the jointly authored “Draft Specification of a Dual Voltage Vehicle Electrical Power System 42V/14V”.

In 2011, several German car makers agreed on a 48V on-board electric power supply network supplementing the current 12V network and introduced the “Combo plug”, a common power plug for DC charging electric vehicles. As of 2018, this 48-volt electrical system has been applied in production vehicles such as Porsche and Bentley SUVs, and Volvo and Audi plan to use the 48-volt standard in 2019 vehicles.

Six-cell lead-acid batteries produce around 12.6 volts while discharging, and their corresponding automotive alternators are designed to produce 13.5 to 14.5 volts during charging. 42 volts is an approximation of the output of the new standard’s charging system. The present nominally 12 V automotive electrical system usually operates around 13.8 volts, so 14 V is descriptive. Literature on 42 volt electrical systems often refers to systems powered with a 6-cell lead-acid battery as nominally 14 volts. Depending on operating conditions, the vehicle electrical system voltage today can vary between 6.5 and 16 V, with a varying degree of ripple superimposed on this value.

After extensive preparatory work, resulting in the “List of Loads in the Automobile of the Year 2005”, various automotive electrical system architectures were compared using the tool “MAESTrO” (12 V, 12 V/24 V DC, 12 V/48 V DC and 12 V/60 V AC) in the September 1995 workshop at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT/LEES). The finding of this study was that the highest possible direct voltage was the best alternative.

The limiting factor for direct voltages is a shock-hazard protection limit of 60 V, which must not be exceeded even during voltage fluctuations caused by extreme conditions. This limit eliminates the option of an automotive electrical system with a nominal battery voltage of 48 V, because at low temperatures the charging voltage of the battery can attain 60 V. Also, the price, weight and volume of batteries are influenced by the number of cells, which must therefore be kept to a minimum.

New battery technologies for automotive applications would not have been available at affordable costs for the 42 V/14 V PowerNet. Lead-acid batteries are low-priced and have a very “compliant” charging/discharging characteristic. Therefore, lead-acid batteries would have been used optimised for energy and service life at the lower voltage and optimised for power at the higher voltage.

Another important criterion for a new architecture was that it should allow gradual conversion of loads to the higher voltage system as required.

In a 42 V/14 V system, the 14 V branch should have been freed of higher-power loads and should operate within much narrower limits.

Power electronics is becoming increasingly important in the automotive sphere and will be a decisive factor in the price of future vehicles. This criterion was therefore especially important when selecting the most suitable higher voltage level. Despite the considerable upward trend of power electronics in automotive applications, its share of the market will decline, because growth rates in other market segments are even higher. For that reason alone, a specific manufacturing technology for automotive use is inconceivable.[citation needed]

In intensive discussions with the major semiconductor manufacturers, a voltage of approximately 40 V was found to be advantageous. Many arguments are summarised in the paper “Intelligente Leistungshalbleiter für zukünftige Kfz-Bordnetze” (“Intelligent Power Semiconductors for Future Automotive Electrical Systems”) presented by the former Siemens Semiconductors (now Infineon) at the 17th “Elektronik im Kraftfahrzeug” (In-Car Electronics) conference on June 3/4, 1997 in Munich.

Other arguments for a higher voltage included the reduction of weight in the wiring system, improved stability, and reduced voltage drop. With three times the voltage, thick conductors can be reduced to a third of the cross-section, and at the same time the relative voltage drop can also be reduced to a third. For the same cross-section, the relative voltage drop is now no more than one ninth. The voltage level resulting from these arguments was so close to three times the present voltage that 42 V became the automatic choice for the second voltage level.

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